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通勤學英語

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通勤學英語Podcast,百萬下載英語跟讀節目, 利用每日15分鐘,不用先背單字,不需要先懂文法,即刻提升你的英語力!

一杯咖啡的時間,下班回家的路上,無聊的塞車,打開手機跟著通勤學英語Podcast 每週三大節目一起累積英語力!

15mins.Today, the home of English shadowing! Stay tuned to the Podcast that has grown to over a million downloads.

Follow the English shadowing articles Monday through Friday, with Vocab on Saturday, and In-Tense every Sunday to improve your English on the go.

更新時間(同步在臉書粉絲頁發送):
星期一到週五- 每日跟讀系列,跟著 John老師一起朗讀時事趣聞。
週六 - 精選詞彙 Vocab單元,收聽John與Gavin老師討論文章內容與精選詞彙。
週日 - 文法跟讀 In-Tense單元,跟著Gavin老師一起反覆朗讀常用例句。
想透過電子郵件收到每日一篇文章?在 www.15mins.today 填寫email訂閱!
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Welcome to 15mins.today the home of English Shadowing. I'm your host Gavin and this is InTense Episode 36. Well guys in this episode we will be continuing with the definite article “ the,” and in this episode we are looking at when we don't use “the” for subjects, as in when we talk about what we studied at school or subjects we studied at university or what we're doing part time.   So, let's look at an example for instance, “When I was at university, I studied Property Law.” You notice no “the” in front of that. So, it's very simple, we talk about subjects, without “the” in front of them. Let's get started with our questions.   Drill Sentences:   Did Jane enjoy English at school? Yes, she enjoyed English at school. Did Jane enjoy English at school? No, she did not enjoy English at school.   Did Peter study Computer Science at university? Yes, he studied Computer Science at university. Did Peter study Computer Science at university? No, he did not study Computer Science at university.   Did John and Jane do well in Geography? Yes, they did well in Geography. Did John and Jane do well in Geography? No, they did not do well in Geography.   What did you study at university? I studied Law at university. What was your favorite subject at school? My favorite subject at school was History.   Is Brian studying Marketing part time? Yes, he is studying Marketing part time. Is Brian studying Marketing part time? No, he is not studying Marketing part time.   Does Susan enjoy Accounting? Yes, she enjoys Accounting. Does Susan enjoy Accounting? No, she does not enjoy Accounting.   Is Philosophy a useful subject? Yes, Philosophy is a useful subject. Is Philosophy a useful subject? No, Philosophy is not a useful subject.   What was your best subject at school? My best subject at school was English.   What was your least favorite subject at school? My least favorite subject at school was Science.   Does Lillian have a Master’s in Robotics? Yes, she has a Master's in Robotics. Does Lillian have a Masters in Robotics? No, she does not have a Master's in Robotics.   Well there you go guys, keep repeating the questions and the answers and practice, practice, practice and catch you next time, thank you! Bye, bye!   每日英語跟讀Podcast,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法練習Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到通勤學英語節目更新通知。
Summary: This article discusses how the idea of blue light being bad for us at night might be wrong, that yellow light at night in night mode is doing more bad for us than low level blue light. This came from experiments with mice so whether this is true for humans is up for debate. The only solution is to turn off your phone.   討論的文章: https://www.15mins.today/blog/752-not-such-a-bright-idea-why-your-phone-s-night-mode-may-be   Drill Sentences:   Feature: Something important or interesting of a thing Does your new phone have many features? Does the service offer any important features?   Disrupt: To make it difficult for something ro continue in the same way. Are disruptive technologies changing the world?  Did my call disrupt your sleep?   Biased: A tendency to show favor towards something Are people biased in politics? Should teachers not have bias in the classroom?   Get 70% off NordVPN! Only $3.49/mo, plus you get an additional month FREE at https://nordvpn.org/fifteenmins Or use coupon code: fifteenmins   每日英語跟讀Podcast,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法練習Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到通勤學英語節目更新通知。    
每日英語跟讀 Ep.793: Their Home Is Yours   戴懷特和女友康斯坦絲.韓森去年七月規劃秘魯之行時,決定不住飯店,改住寄宿家庭。寄宿家庭位在庫斯科省聖地牙哥區,每晚35美元(約台幣1050元),物超所值,而65歲的主人媽媽、寡婦瑪麗更用溫暖的接待贏得了他們的心。 While planning a trip to Peru last July, Brian Twite and his girlfriend, Constance Hansen, decided to skip hotels and stay with a host family. At $35 a night, the accommodation in the Santiago district of Cusco was a bargain. But the warmth of their host mother, a 65-year-old widow named Marie, won them over. 戴懷特回憶說:「我們醒來時她就會大喊『孩子們!』,要我們過去吃早餐。」戴懷特是美國芝加哥人,從事製造業物流工作。 “We’d wake up and she’d yell, ‘Chicos!’, calling us for breakfast down the hall,” said Twite, a Chicagoan who works in manufacturing logistics. 32歲的戴懷特說,在秘魯聖谷遊覽一整天後,他很感謝能回到寄宿家庭,跟瑪麗和她的兒子喬納森分享當天趣事。戴懷特說:「我們坐下來用餐,談談那天發生的事。他們會問,『你們做了什麼?去了哪些地方?』這真的很美妙,住飯店你不會得到這種經驗。」 After a long day of sightseeing in the Sacred Valley, Twite, 32, said he was grateful to come home and share highlights of his day with Marie and her son, Jonathan. “You sit down to a meal and talk about your day. They asked us, ‘What did you do? Where did you go?’ That was really magical because you don’t get that with a hotel.” 隨著近年來旅客日益渴望更為親密,由當地人主導,且不一樣的經驗,傳統上是背包客和外國交換學生的選擇的寄宿家庭體驗,也以新方式興起。 As travelers’ appetites move toward wanting more intimate, locally driven and nongeneric experiences in recent years, homestays — traditionally the fallback for backpackers and foreign exchange students — are emerging in a new light. 英國英格蘭約克郡退休都市計畫師卡魯瑟斯,上月預訂了在巴基斯坦一個寄宿家庭的住宿,他說:「這是對你到訪的地方產生真切感受的最好方式。」 “It’s the best way to get a feel for the place you’re visiting,” said Cliff Carruthers, a retired urban planner in York, England, who booked a homestay in Pakistan last month. 總部在倫敦的高檔行程旅行社「狂野邊界」創辦人畢爾比說,現在他販售的行程中,80%包含某種形式的寄宿家庭體驗。一些人氣行程也經過修改,納入寄宿家庭體驗,例如2013年推出的巴勒斯坦步行遊覽行程,現在主打薩努爾村住宿。 At London-based Wild Frontiers, a luxury tour planner, the founder, Jonny Bealby, says 80% of his tours today include at least some kind of homestay. In some cases, popular itineraries have been revised to include a homestay; a walking tour of Palestine that’s been offered since 2013, for example, now features a village stay in Sanur. 畢爾比說,「這是為了迎合客人需求」,倫敦、波士頓和紐約的客人似乎願意放棄每晚入住豪華飯店的便利,「他們要的是接地氣」。 “It’s being driven by the customer,” Bealby said, noting that travelers from London, Boston and New York seem willing to forgo the conveniences of a plush hotel every night. “What they want to do is connect.” Homestay.com旅行社創立於2013年,目前在142個國家有業務,總經理伊馮.費萊說:「這絕對需要一些信任。事實上,你是進入這個人的家,所以必須懷著尊重的心。」 “It absolutely takes a bit of trust,” said Yvonne Finlay, managing director at Homestay.com, which launched in 2013 and now operates in 142 countries. “Effectively, you’re coming into this person’s home. So there needs to be that element of respect.”  寄宿家庭體驗也有實務上的吸引力。古巴旅館有限,寄宿家庭體驗經常是最好的選擇。販售精品行程的旅行社「方位儀」,根據客人感興趣的事物,如美食、音樂和追溯家族根源,把客人與特定寄宿家庭和鄰里配對。共同創辦人卡洛說:「寄宿家庭體驗讓我們更有彈性。」   Homestays also have a practical appeal. With Cuba’s limited hotel inventory, homestays are often the best option. One boutique travel company, Pelorus, pairs guests with specific hosts and neighborhoods, depending on their interests — food, music or retracing family roots. “Homestays allow us to be more flexible,” Jimmy Carroll, the company’s co-founder, said.   Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/349813/web/   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.792: Did asteroid that hit Australia help thaw ancient ‘snowball Earth’?   Scientists have identified Earth’s oldest-known impact crater, and in doing so may have solved a mystery about how our planet emerged from one of its most dire periods. 科學家日前鑑定出地球目前已知最古老的隕石撞擊坑,並在研究過程中有望解開一項謎團:那就是,我們的地球當時是如何擺脫一段最為極端的時期。 Researchers have determined that the 70km-wide Yarrabubba crater in Australia formed when an asteroid struck Earth just over 2.2 billion years ago. The collision occurred at a time when the planet was believed to have been encased in ice and the impact may have driven climate warming that led to a global thaw. 研究人員近日確定,寬達七十公里的澳洲亞拉布巴隕石坑,是在二十二億年前,因為一顆小行星撞擊地球而形成。這場撞擊發生在科學家認為地球被冰層包覆的時期,而當時的撞擊可能促使氣候暖化,進一步導致全球解凍。 “Looking at our planet from space, it would have looked very different,” said isotope geology professor Chris Kirkland of Curtin University in Australia, one of the researchers in the study published in the journal Nature Communications. “You would see a white ball, not our familiar blue marble.” 澳洲科廷大學的同位素地質學教授克里斯‧柯克蘭是研究團隊的一員,他表示:「如果當時從太空看地球,我們這顆行星看起來會非常不一樣。」柯克蘭指出:「你會看到一顆雪白的球體,而不是我們熟悉的藍色彈珠。」這份研究日前發表於期刊《自然通訊》。 The researchers suspect the region was covered in an ice sheet up to 5km thick at the time. They calculated that the violent asteroid strike may have transformed immense amounts of ice into water vapor — sending perhaps 200 billion tonnes of it billowing into the atmosphere. It would have served as a greenhouse gas trapping heat in the atmosphere. 研究人員懷疑,該地區當時被厚達五公里的冰層所覆蓋。根據科學家計算,那次激烈的小行星撞擊很可能讓數量龐大的冰變成水蒸氣──並且釋放出大約兩千億噸的水蒸氣奔騰進入大氣層中。大量水蒸氣可能在當時發揮溫室氣體的作用,鎖住大氣層中的熱能。 The researchers are wondering whether this thaw helped shepherd Earth into a climate more favorable for the simple microbes that inhabited the planet at the time to thrive and evolve, possibly making it a pivotal event in the history of life on Earth. 研究人員目前在猜想,這次解凍是否有助於引導地球氣候改變,變得更有利於當時地球棲息的簡單微生物進行繁衍與演化,成為地球上生命歷史的一個關鍵事件。 The planet descended into one of its two primordial “snowball Earth” periods 2.4 billion years ago amid a rise in oxygen, which consumed the greenhouse gases — methane and carbon dioxide — that formerly dominated the atmosphere. The asteroid, estimated at 7km wide, landed at Yarrabubba in the state of Western Australia, coinciding with the end of the deep freeze. 地球曾經兩度進入原始的「雪球地球」時期,第一次發生在二十四億年前:原本充斥著甲烷和二氧化碳的大氣層中,氧氣逐漸增加,消耗溫室氣體,使得地球進入冰封狀態。這顆估計直徑七公里的小行星,墜落在西澳洲亞拉布巴的時間點剛好發生於地球冰封的尾聲。 “During the time of the Yarrabubba impact, life was more simple but did contain organisms like stromatolites, algal mounds that are still in existence today,” said study lead author Timmons Erickson, a NASA research scientist at the Johnson Space Center’s Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science division. “It is curious to think of an asteroid impact shifting the Earth’s atmosphere to something more clement for life than a ‘snowball’ scenario,” Erickson added. 該研究的主要作者提蒙斯‧艾瑞克森是美國太空總署的研究科學家,任職於詹森太空中心的天體物質研究和探索科學部門。他指出:「在亞拉布巴撞擊當時,生命形態較為簡單,但是已經出現疊層石、藻丘這類今日仍然存在的有機體。」他補充說:「想像一場小行星撞擊,讓地球大氣層變得對生命較為仁慈,勝過『雪球』情境,這相當引人思索。」 The researchers determined the crater’s age by examining tiny crystals of the minerals monazite and zircon formed in the asteroid impact. Earth has been hit by space rocks many times since it formed 4.5 billion years ago. For example, an asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. But the inexorable movement of Earth’s tectonic plates and surface erosion have erased most of the oldest craters. 小行星撞擊產生獨居石(磷鈰鑭礦)和鋯石等礦物的微小結晶體,而研究人員藉由檢驗這些結晶體來判定撞擊坑的年代。地球自從在四十五億年前形成後,已經多次遭到來自太空的岩石撞擊。六千六百萬年前毀滅恐龍的小行星就是一個例子。只是,地球勢不可擋的地殼板塊移動和表面侵蝕幾乎抹去了絕大多數的古老撞擊坑。 Until now, the oldest-known impact crater was one in South Africa with a diameter of more than 200km that formed just over 2 billion years ago. The other “snowball Earth” period lasted from 700 million to 600 million years ago. 在此之前,科學家所知最古老的小行星撞擊坑位於南非,直徑超過兩百公里,大約形成於二十億年前。另一次「雪球地球」時期則是介於七億年前到六億年前之間。   Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/02/09/2003730611/2   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.791: Coronavirus misinformation spreads over social media   The novel coronavirus roiling financial markets and prompting travel bans is taking on a life of its own on the Internet, once again putting US-based social media companies on the defensive about their efforts to curb the spread of false or dangerous information. 擾亂金融市場、讓多國發布旅行禁令的新型冠狀病毒,現在也佔據了網路各角落,再度讓總部位於美國的社群媒體公司疲於辨解他們對防堵不實或危險資訊的傳播所做的努力。 Researchers and journalists have documented a growing number of cases of misinformation about the virus, ranging from racist explanations for the disease’s origin to false claims about miracle cures. Conspiracy theorists, trolls and cynics hoping to use the panic to boost traffic to their own accounts have all contributed to the cloud of bad information. 研究人員和記者發現,關於該病毒的錯誤訊息越來越多,從對該病起源的種族歧視的解釋,到奇蹟式療癒的不實說法都有。陰謀論者、惡搞的人及酸民利用恐慌來增加他們自己網路帳號的流量,這一切都助長了這些有害的資訊。 “It’s the perfect intersection of fear, racism and distrust of the government and Big Pharma,” said Maarten Schenk, co-founder of the fact-checking site Lead Stories. “People don’t trust the official narrative.” 事實查核網站「Lead Stories」的共同創辦人馬丁‧申克表示:「這是恐懼、種族歧視、對政府之不信任,以及電玩遊戲『Big Pharma』(大藥廠)的完美結合」。「人們不信任官方的說法。」 The novel coronavirus, which originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan, so far has killed at least 900 people and infected over 40,000, with cases in more than 20 countries. 自中國武漢市發源的新型冠狀病毒,目前已造成九百多人死亡、逾四萬人感染,有二十多國出現確診病例。 One set of tweets and Facebook posts from US conspiracy theory accounts said drinking bleach could protect against the virus or even cure it. “Rumors can travel more quickly and more widely than they could” in an era before social media, said Thomas Rid, a professor of strategic studies at Johns Hopkins University, who has a forthcoming book on the history of disinformation. “That of course lends itself to conspiracies spreading more quickly. 美國一些持陰謀論的帳號在推特和臉書發出訊息稱,喝漂白水可預防甚至治癒這種病毒。 約翰霍普金斯大學戰略研究教授托馬斯‧里德表示,在這有社群媒體的年代,「謠言可以比過去傳播得更快、更廣」。他有一本探討假消息歷史的書即將出版。「這當然也讓陰謀活動傳播得更快。它們散佈得更廣,並因訊息無法刪除,所以更是揮之不去。」 They spread more widely and they are more persistent in the sense that you can’t undo them.” Some of the Internet traffic and misinformation has been outright racist against Chinese people and Asians in general. Posts attributing the coronavirus to Chinese culinary practices have blown up, and a review of a new Chinese restaurant in Toronto was swarmed by racist trolls. “There’s a lot of misinformation out there, and some of that can be quite dangerous,” Maria Van Kerkhove, head of the WHO’s emerging diseases unit, said at a press conference in Geneva on Jan. 29. 有些網路點閱量和假消息完全是針對中國人和所有亞洲人的種族歧視。將冠狀病毒歸咎於中國烹飪方式的貼文快速傳開,多倫多一家新開張中餐館在網路上的評價,被種族歧視的惡搞酸民灌爆。「有很多錯誤訊息,其中有的可能非常危險」,世界衛生組織新興疾病部門主管瑪利亞‧范科霍芙一月二十九日在日內瓦的記者會上表示。 Viruses have always sparked fear and misinformation, striking panic as rumors spread and people desperate for information latch onto whatever snippets they can find — whether they’re true or not. But the advent of social media has supercharged this process, leading to waves of misinformation over elections, mass shootings, plane crashes and natural disasters.  病毒總是引發恐懼和假消息,隨著謠言的傳播造成人們恐慌、迫切希望獲取資訊,找到任何關於病毒的隻字片語便照單全收──不論這些資訊是否屬實。社群媒體的出現則加劇了這個過程,導致有關選舉、大規模槍擊案、飛機失事及自然災害等之假消息層出不窮。 The outbreak is just the latest test of social networks’ ability to handle the spread of false and dangerous information. “Early days in an outbreak, there’s so much uncertainty. People don’t like uncertainty. They want answers,” said Timothy Caulfield, a health law professor at the University of Alberta. “Social media is a polarization machine where the loudest voices win,” he said. 此次的疫情爆發,是對社群網站能力的最新測試,考驗它如何處理不實與危險訊息的散布。「在疫情爆發的早期,不確定的事太多了。人們不喜歡不確定性。他們要的是答案」。亞伯達大學健康法教授提莫西‧考菲爾德說,「社群媒體是兩極分化的機器,誰聲音最大誰就贏」。   Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/02/11/2003730723/2   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense  用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.790: Pingtung resident swaps weddings for organic tomatoes Chiu Meng-hsien, from Pingtung County’s Neipu Township, gave up an earlier career as a wedding banquet designer to become a farmer, buying land and constructing a greenhouse to grow cherry tomatoes. This year, Chiu started to harvest his crop before the start of the Lunar New Year and has been working non-stop throughout the holiday period to be ready to sell to the market. 原從事結婚喜宴會場佈置的屏東縣內埔鄉農民邱孟賢,轉換跑道務農,買地、建溫室細心呵護玉女番茄,今年在春節前採收上市,連年假期間也不得閒。 The 51-year-old, who had no prior experience of farming, says he developed a strong interest toward farming and agriculture while working as a wedding banquet designer, which uses flowers and plants for decoration. Ten years ago, Chiu changed careers, moving to Neipu Township and purchasing 0.4 hectares of land. On two of the plots Chiu constructed a greenhouse to grow cherry tomatoes and oriental melons. 五十一歲的邱孟賢原是農業門外漢,因婚宴會場佈置需要植物花卉材料,接觸到農業後他產生很大興趣,十年前轉行,到內埔鄉購得近四分地,其中兩分地搭設溫室種植玉女番茄及洋香瓜。 Chiu says that, although a native of Kaohsiung, after seeing the favorable environmental conditions in Neipu Township, he decided to buy land there, aided by an introduction from a friend. He began learning how to grow tomatoes and spent nearly NT$1 million installing facilities. Chiu says he pampers his cherry tomatoes: “You definitely need to give them a house to live in to protect them from the elements, then they will grow really well.” 他表示,老家住高雄,看到內埔環境清優,在朋友介紹下購地,開始學種番茄,並花近百萬元搭設施,玉女番茄非常嬌貴,「一定要蓋房子給它們住」,才能擋住風雨長得好。 Out of consideration for food safety and ecology, Chiu decided to apply for organic certification. Since he cannot use chemical fertilizers, Chiu’s orchard is often attacked by tobacco cutworm. To get around this problem, Chiu uses fly papers and employs green lacewings as natural pest control, and also sprays organic pesticides. In order to verify the efficacy of his preventative techniques and treatments, Chiu plucks off leaves and examines them under a microscope to check for signs of hatched insect eggs. Chiu says that although he has no specialist scientific training, he carries out more research than most of his peers and has even received praise from experts at the Pingtung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station. 為了食安及生態環境,他還申請到有機驗證,因為不能用農藥,果園常遭斜紋夜盜蟲侵襲,除了放黏板,還放草蛉當天敵防治,噴用有機防治資材,為確定有無效果,還摘葉子放到專程買來的顯微鏡下觀察,看看有無蟲卵孵化,雖非科班出身,但功課做得比別人多,連農改場專家也稱讚他的用心。 Chiu says that cherry tomatoes are currently the main variety of small-sized tomato in Taiwan, and their organic variety, in addition to satisfying food safety and health considerations, also have the benefit of not being cloyingly-sweet, with a slight acidity to their flavor profile. Only organic cherry tomatoes can provide consumers with the flavor they are looking for, he says. 邱孟賢強調,玉女番茄是目前小番茄的主流,而有機玉女小番茄,除了安全健康,也沒有「死甜」味,略帶微酸,才能讓消費者吃到真美味。   Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/02/05/2003730357   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.789: About Science - ’Earth sandwich’ made by two men 20,000km apart   Sierra and Naude have created an "Earth sandwich" - by placing bread on precise points, either side of the planet, at the same time. 塞拉與諾德創造了1個「地球三明治」,透過將麵包同時擺在地球兩側精確的點上。 Naude from New Zealand wanted to make one for years, but had struggled to find someone in Spain, on the other side of the globe. 紐西蘭的諾德想做地球三明治好幾年了,他花費許多心力尋找一個在地球另一端─西班牙的人。 Two months ago, he posted on the Spain section of the online message board Reddit. He got "a few replies" and found one person close to the precise location. 2個月前,他在線上留言版Reddit的西班牙區塊發文後,他收到一些回覆,並且找到一個距離該確切位置較近的人。 The men used longitude and latitude to make sure they were precisely opposite. 他們利用經緯度確保彼此在地球另一端的精準「對面」。 According to World Atlas, only around 15% of "territorial land" is antipodal to other land. Naude only had to travel a few hundred metres to find a suitable public spot on his side of the world. Mr Sierra had to travel 11 km . 根據世界地圖,只有約15%「國家屬地」的對面也是土地。在諾德這側,他只需要移動幾百公尺,就可以找到合適的公共場所。塞拉則必須移動11公里。   Next Article:   Human ’screenome’ may give insight into human health 人類「螢幕特質」可探究人類健康 To understand how people use digital media, researchers need to move beyond screen time and capture everything we do and see on our screens. 要了解人們如何使用數位媒體,研究者必須超越螢幕的使用時間,進一步截錄一切我們在螢幕上的所為與所見。 Digital media — in particular, social media — have powerful and invariable effects on human behaviour. Policies and advice must be informed by accurate assessments of media use. These should involve moment-by-moment capture of what people are doing and when, and machine analysis of the content on their screens and the order in which it appears. 數位媒體,尤其是社群媒體,對人類的行為具有威力強大且不會消失的影響。政策和報告必須根據精確的媒體使用評估。而這些評量應該包括時刻截錄人們在什麼時候做了哪些事情,機器分析螢幕顯示的內容與指示。 According to a 2019 systematic review and meta-analysis, over the past 12 years, 226 studies have examined how media use is related to psychological well-being. 根據一項2019年的系統性回顧與統合分析,過去逾12年來,已有226項研究驗證媒體使用與心理福祉有關聯性。 The meta-analysis found almost no systematic relationship between people’s levels of exposure to digital media and their well-being. But almost all of these 226 studies used responses to interviews or questionnaires about how long people had spent on social media. 統合分析發現,人們接觸數位媒體的程度,與他們的心理福祉之間,幾乎沒有一致的關聯性。但226項研究中,幾乎所有研究都使用訪談或問卷調查,讓人們回答曾花多少時間在社群媒體上。 Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1349576; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1350930   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
Welcome to 15mins.today the home of English Shadowing. I'm your host Gavin and this is In-Tense Episode 35.   Well guys, in this episode we are carrying on with our use of the definite article “the,” actually the non use, where we do not use “the.” So today's one we will be looking at is, languages. So when you talk about a language, we do not use “the” in front of a language as in, “I speak English.” or “You speak Chinese.” So, it's very simple, I don't think there's any exception that I can honestly think of. So, let's get started with our questions!   Drill Sentences:   Does Jane speak Japanese? Yes, she speaks Japanese. Does Jane speak Japanese? No, she does not speak Japanese.   Do Andrew and John speak Chinese? Yes, they speak Chinese. Do Andrew and John speak Chinese? No, they do not speak Chinese.   Is German easy to learn? Yes, German is easy to learn. Is German easy to learn? No, German is not easy to learn.   Is Italian a popular language? Yes, Italian is a popular language. Is Italian a popular language? No, Italian is not a popular language.   Is Chinese the most difficult language to learn? Yes, Chinese is the most difficult language to learn. Is Chinese the most difficult language to learn? No, Chinese is not the most difficult language to learn.   Is Latin a dead language? Yes, Latin is a dead language. Is Latin a dead language? No, Latin is not a dead language.   Can Susan write Thai? Yes, she can write Thai. Can Susan write Thai? No, she cannot write Thai.   Can you speak French? Yes, I can speak French. Can you speak French? No, I cannot speak French.   What language do they speak in Brazil? They speak Portuguese in Brazil.   Is Spanish prevalent in South America? Yes, Spanish is prevalent in South America. Is Spanish prevalent in South America? No, Spanish is not prevalent in South America.   What languages can you speak? I can speak Chinese and English.   Can you read Japanese? Yes, I can read Japanese. Can you read Japanese? No, I cannot read Japanese.   Is learning English easy? Yes, learning English is easy. Is learning English easy? No, learning English is not easy   Well guys, there you go. Repeat the questions and do the answers and keep repeating and I'll catch you in the next one, bye!   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
Summary: Japan is a pioneer in cashless technology, but now it is one of the countries in the world that is lagging behind in the adoption of electronic payments. Four out of five purchases are made with cash, while 90% of the payments in Korea are digital. Japanese elders feel more comfortable to use cash, since counterfeiting is non-existent.  In November, Japanese lawmakers giggled during a drill to practice using the disaster prevention helmets. People took to Twitter and questioned the parliament for making light of a life and death matter.   Vocabulary and Sample Sentences: Life-and-death adj. – vitally important It is a life-and-death matter, we need to deal with it very seriously. I need you to take me to the hospital now, it’s a life-and-death matter.   Unfold v.– open or spread out from a folded position / information or sequence that is revealed We would have to wait for Gavin to finish the story to understand how it unfolds. Please unfold the boxes and leave it near the trash can.   Off-key adj – not appropriate or not having the correct pitch He was singing off-key, and it was painful for us to hear. What Peter did last week was off-key.   Get 70% off NordVPN! Only $3.49/mo, plus you get an additional month FREE at https://nordvpn.org/fifteenmins Coupon Code 折扣碼: fifteenmins   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.788: Japanese billionaire’s girlfriend entrants top 20,000   Applications to become Japanese billionaire Yusaku Maezawa’s girlfriend have topped 20,000, streaming service AbemaTV said on Thursday, ahead of its documentary on his search for a “life partner” to take on his moon voyage.   串流服務「Abema電視」週四說,申請成為日本億萬富翁前澤友作女友的數目已突破2萬大關,就在他拍攝尋求「人生伴侶」展開月球之旅的紀錄片之前。   Maezawa, who will be the first private passenger on Elon Musk’s SpaceX, has already generated huge social media buzz with a $9 million giveaway to his followers that secured his position as Japan’s foremost Twitter celebrity.   將成為伊隆.馬斯克「太空探索科技公司」第一位私人乘客的前澤,憑著對跟隨者送出900萬美元大禮,早已在社群媒體引發熱議,並保住了他身為日本第一推特名人的地位。   The show’s application site now includes a “love diagnostic test” where potential entrants can test their compatibility with the entrepreneur.   這場演出的申請網站現在包含「愛情診斷測驗」,可能的參賽者在上頭可以測試他們和這名企業家的合適度。   Multiple-choice questions include “If you rode in a private jet where would you go?” and “If Maezawa farted in front of you what would you say?”, with users presented with a photo of the billionaire varying from happy to sad depending on their score.   多選題包括「如果搭私人飛機,你會去哪裡?」以及「如果前澤在你面前放屁,你會說什麼?」並根據用戶得分,發給他們這名億萬富翁開心或難過等不同表情的照片。   Next Article:   Sapporo snow fest organizers fretting over very low snowfall 降雪量非常低 札幌雪祭主辦單位很傷腦筋   The one thing this northern city is normally not short of at this time of year is snow, lots of it.   這座(日本)北方城市每年此時通常最不虞匱乏的一樣東西,就是雪,而且會有很多雪。   But just 54 centimeters fell in December in Sapporo, 41 percent of average, causing alarm bells to ring for organizers of the 71st Sapporo Snow Festival, which starts Feb. 4 and draws many visitors from overseas.   但札幌(去年)12月的降雪僅54公分,為平均值的41%,讓2月4日揭幕、吸引許多海外遊客的第71屆札幌雪祭的主辦單位警覺大事不妙。   Ski resorts in Sapporo have also had to scale back their activities, and festival organizers are struggling to secure sufficient snow to ensure that there will be the usual range of magnificent ice sculptures.   (降雪量稀少讓)札幌的各滑雪場也得縮減營業,雪祭主辦單位則努力設法取得足夠雪量,以保障能與往年一樣有一整排壯觀的雪雕。   At a ceremony held Jan. 7 to haul in snow to Odori Park, the main venue, Ryu Shibata, president of the organizing committee, tried to put on a brave face, saying, "We are determined to overcome difficulties and make the festival a success."   1月7日在雪祭主會場大通公園舉行的一場輸雪典禮上,企圖強裝不在乎雪少困境的雪祭 執委會會長柴田龍說,「我們決心要克服困難,把雪祭辦成功。」   December’s snowfall was below the monthly average at all major 22 observation points in Hokkaido, according to the Japan Meteorological Agency’s Sapporo Regional Headquarters.   根據日本氣象廳札幌管區氣象台,北海道全部22個主要觀測點在(去年)12月的降雪量,都低於月平均值。   Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1348065 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1347995   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.787: About Korea: Furlough threat hangs over US military bases in S. Korea   The US is warning it will send furlough notices within weeks to almost 9,000 South Korean workers at US bases if the two countries don’t reach agreement on President Donald Trump’s demand for Seoul to increase dramatically what it pays for American troops.   美國正提醒南韓,若兩國未能就總統川普要求首爾應大幅增加其負擔的駐韓美軍經費達成協議,它將在幾週內,向將近9000名美軍基地的韓籍工作人員,寄發無薪假通知。   "Cost-sharing negotiations with allies are tough, whether it’s Korea, Japan or others," said Rexon Ryu, a former White House official and Pentagon chief of staff. "But a penny-pinching approach risks weakening fundamental strength of the alliance."   前白宮官員及前五角大廈參謀長雷克森.柳說,「與盟邦的經費分攤談判很棘手,不管是南韓、日本或其他國家」,「但斤斤計較的態度,會有削弱同盟的根本實力之風險」。   South Korean President Moon Jae-in is facing parliamentary elections in April and is wary of the political fallout if he agrees to a hefty increase, which has little support in his camp and among the general public.   南韓總統文在寅正面臨4月舉行的國會選舉,一旦他同意大幅增加(韓方的負擔費用),恐會遭受到政治後果,而在他的陣營內與社會大眾間,對此幾乎無人支持。   Next Article:   Seoul saw increase in eco-friendly vehicles 首爾環保車增加   The total number of vehicles licensed in Seoul last year saw a decrease for the first time in seven years while the number of eco-friendly cars increased, government data showed Thursday.   政府數據週四顯示,首爾去年領有牌照的車輛總數,7年來首次減少。但環保車的數量則增加。   The number of hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles in Seoul skyrocketed by 21 percent, 56 percent and 613 percent, respectively, last year from the previous year.   首爾去年的(油、電)混合動力車、電動車與氫動力車數量,相較於前年,分別暴增達21%、56%及613%。   By district, the largest number of cars was registered in Songpa with 240,559 (87.7 percent), followed by Gangnam with 235,415 (7.54 percent).   按區劃分,以登記在松坡區的汽車數量最多,達24萬0559輛(增幅87.7%)。其次為江南區的23萬5415輛(增幅7.54%)   Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1348959;https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1348141   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.786: Brexit ‘done’ at last: Now for the hard part   The United Kingdom left the EU on Friday, its most significant change of course since the loss of its empire — and a major blow to 70 years of efforts to forge European unity from the ruins of two world wars.   英國上週五脫離了歐盟,這是自大英帝國解體以來英國最重大的改變,這對自兩次世界大戰廢墟中重建、經七十年整合努力的歐洲來說,也是重大的打擊。   After the numerous twists and turns of a three-and-a-half-year crisis, the final parting is an anticlimax of sorts: Britain steps into the twilight zone of a transition period that preserves membership in all but name until the end of this year.   這場危機歷時三年半、經過無數迂迴曲折,最後的脫歐似乎有些太過平靜:英國進入了過渡期的模糊地帶,雖名義上已脫離歐盟,但到年底前這段過渡期仍享有原先歐盟成員國之待遇。   At a stroke, the EU will lose 15 percent of its economy, its biggest military spender and the world’s international financial capital — London. “This is the moment when the dawn breaks and the curtain goes up on a new act,” said UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson, one of the leaders of the “Leave” campaign in the 2016 referendum. “It is a moment of real national renewal and change.”   英國一脫歐,歐盟即會損失百分之十五的經濟、其最大的軍事開支國,以及國際金融重鎮──倫敦。 英國首相波里斯‧強生說:「這是黎明破曉、揭開新篇章的時刻」,強生曾是二○一六年公投中「脫歐」派的領導人之一。「這是真正的民族復興與變革的一刻。」   DISUNITED KINGDOM The EU cautioned that leaving meant losing the benefits of membership, though the US said Britons wanted to escape the “tyranny of Brussels.” While Britons either side of the Brexit (a portmanteau of “British” and “exit”) divide expressed either sadness or delight.   國內嚴重的分歧 歐盟警告說,英國脫歐意味失去歐盟成員國所享有的利益,雖然美國表示英國人想逃離「布魯塞爾的暴政」。而對於脫歐,英國贊成與反對的兩方皆表達出其喜與悲。〔「Brexit」(英國脫歐)一字為「Britain」與「 exit」所合成。〕   For proponents, Brexit is “independence day” — an escape from what they cast as a doomed German-dominated project that is failing its 500 million people.   對脫歐支持者來說,英國脫歐日是「獨立日」──擺脫了他們所認為注定失敗、由德國主導、辜負其五億人民的歐盟。   Opponents believe Brexit is a folly that will weaken the West, shrivel what is left of Britain’s global clout, undermine its economy and ultimately lead to a more inward-looking and less cosmopolitan set of islands in the northern Atlantic.   反對脫歐的人認為,英國脫歐是不智之舉,會削弱西方的力量,也會讓英國所剩不多的全球影響力更無足輕重、破壞英國的經濟,最終會讓英國變成獨善其身、國際化程度較低的北大西洋島嶼。   Brexit was always about much more than Europe. The referendum, which split voters 52 percent to 48 percent, showed up deep divisions and triggered soul-searching about everything from secession and immigration to empire and modern Britishness.   英國脫歐所牽涉的問題絕不止是歐洲。脫歐公投將選民撕裂為百分之五十二贊成與百分之四十八反對的兩方,顯示選民分歧之深,也引發了人民對國家分裂、移民,乃至大英帝國及現代對「英國性」之定義等這一切的深刻反省。   SMALL TIMEFRAME AHEAD Feb. 1 marks the beginning of a new phase of negotiations between London and Brussels to agree on the shape of their future relationship.   協議談判的緊迫時程 倫敦與布魯塞爾自二月一日起開始新階段的談判,以決定其未來關係的樣貌。   They have until the end of 2020 — a transition period during which Britain will remain an EU member in all but name — to hammer out an agreement on trade and other issues including security, energy, transport links, fishing rights and data flow.   將於二○二○年底屆滿的過渡時期中(在過渡期,英國實質仍為歐盟成員,但名義上不是),英國和歐盟必須就貿易和其他問題(包括安全、能源、交通運輸、漁權及資料流通)達成協議。   Johnson claims 11 months is time enough to strike a “zero tariff, zero quota” trade deal and has vowed — even though the option is there — not to extend the limbo period beyond 2020.   強生聲稱,十一個月的時間足以達成「零關稅、零配額」的貿易協議,並誓言不會把過渡期延長、拖過二○二○年,即便英國有此選項。   If they fail, the legal default will be a potentially crippling no-deal Brexit that would leave trade between Britain and the EU from 2021 onwards based on WTO terms, and see the imposition of import duties and controls.   若未在此期限內達成協議,就會變成無協議脫歐,損害可能非常嚴重,英國和歐盟間之貿易便會在二○二一年起依世界貿易組織(WTO)之規定課徵進口關稅及受管制。   Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/02/04/2003730294/1   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.785: About Face Masks: Foreigners without Taiwan NHI card can still get masks   中央流行疫情指揮中心於今(4) 公布沒有持健保卡的外籍人士並不因新制受限,仍能購買口罩。   Foreigners without National Health Insurance (NHI) card will still have access to face masks when a new policy goes into effect on Thursday, the Central Epidemic Command Center (CECC, 中央流行疫情指揮中心) said on Tuesday.   健保署署長李伯璋在記者會表示,外籍人士必須提供個人身份資料給當地健保特約藥局,藥局人局會以此登記購買紀錄。   Foreigners will be required to provide their own identification information to local pharmacies where staff will make records accordingly, Director General of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Administration (健保署) Lee Po-chang (李伯璋) said at a press conference earlier today.   至於其他規定則與台灣居民相同。   Lee was unclear as to the type of identification required, adding that relevant authorities are working on the details. Other rules are consistent with those applied to Taiwanese residents, he added.   因此許多沒有醫療險來台旅遊的外籍人士可以放心,同樣可以購買到口罩。   The announcement comes as a relief to many non-nationals visiting Taiwan without health insurance.   移民署資料顯示,截至去年年底在台外來人口停留人數有近20萬名。   Statistics compiled by the Ministry of Immigration (MOI) show that there were almost 200,000 foreigners residing on various types of visas by the end of 2019.   持有外僑居留證、永久居留證的在台外籍人士只要出示健保卡至特約藥局即可買到口罩。   To clarify, foreign residents including those with Alien Resident Certificate (ARC) and Alien Permanent Resident Certificate (APRC) will be eligible to masks as long as they provide their NHI cards at pharmacies under the new policy.   至於持商務簽證來台、正在申請居留證的人都可以買到口罩,但是他們必須出示護照等相關身分證明。政府機關仍在研擬相關細節。   Others, including visitors, people on a business visa, those whose residency applications are pending can still buy masks but they will also need to bring identification. Authorities are still working on the details.   食藥署署長吳秀梅表示,拿觀光簽證來台的人則不能購買口罩。   Confusingly, Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 食藥署) Director-General Wu Shou-mei (吳秀梅) said that those in Taiwan on tourist visa cannot get our masks.   衛福部部長陳時中表示,7日起,民眾可以去健保特約藥局購買口罩,每週限購兩個。   According to CECC Chief Commander Chen Shih-chung (陳時中), locals will only be allowed to buy two face masks per week at NHI contracted pharmacies starting on Thursday.   至於代購方面,每人最多僅能為一位親友代購口罩,只要帶著委託人以及本人的健保卡即可購買。   Everyone is allowed to purchase for maximum one friend or family as long as they bring their national health insurance cards along with their own.   為了分散購買人潮,民眾應依身分證或居留證末碼至藥局購買口罩。   In order to avoid long queues, residents should go to pharmacies according to the last digit of their ID number or residency number.   身分證字號尾數為單數者可於週一、週三、週五購買;身分證字號尾數為雙數者,則可在週二、週四、週六購買;週日不設限。   If the latter ends in an odd number, you are eligible to buy masks on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; holders of even NHI numbers should go on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Sundays are open to all.   部長補充道,每個口罩價格調降1元新台幣(約0.33美金),從每個6元(約0.2美金)降至5元(約0.16美金),民眾必須出示健保卡購買口罩。   The flat fee per piece will drop by NT$1 (US$0.33) from NT$6 (US$0.2) to NT$5 (US$0.16), and locals will need to show their health insurance card to make a purchase, the minister added.   Next Article:   2/6口罩新制上路 全台販售口罩藥局看這裡!| Where to buy face masks? Google map of designated pharmacies unveiled   武漢肺炎疫情造成口罩搶購,中央流行疫情指揮中心指揮官陳時中昨(3)日宣布,口罩實名制自2月6日上路,民眾須持健保卡至6000多家健保特約藥局購買,七天可購買兩片,兩片價格10元。   Taiwan residents will only be allowed to buy two face masks per week at over 6,000 designated pharmacies across Taiwan starting from Feb. 6, Health and Welfare Minister (衛福部) Chen Shih-chung (陳時中) said late Monday.   以下提供全台「特約藥局及無健保特約藥局鄉鎮衛生所名單」Google地圖,供民眾查詢。   To help you find the precious protection gear for your friends and family, please refer to the link: Google map.   「特約藥局及無健保特約藥局鄉鎮衛生所名單」Google地圖|Click here for opening the Google Map   Source article: https://chinapost.nownews.com/20200204-947453 ;https://chinapost.nownews.com/20200204-947573   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.784: About coronavirus: ‘Corona virus’ photos go viral on Twitter 武漢肺炎疫情全球延燒,然而,歐美地區仍然有少數人不清楚疫情。隨著武漢肺炎英文「coronavirus」與可樂娜啤酒(Corona)相似,許多人搞不清楚上網搜尋,因此讓全球Google搜尋關鍵字「可樂那啤酒病毒」自1月中(beer coronavirus) 暴增3200%。 The number of confirmed cases has continued to increase in Asia, but some people are still unfamiliar with the details of the virus outbreak. Some even have mistaken the word “coronavirus” with corona beer, leading to a 3,200% surge of the google search keyword “beer coronavirus.” 因為肺炎和可樂娜兩字令人混淆,有外國網友在推特(Twitter)分享道:「我不會得肺炎,因為我不喝可樂娜啤酒。」推特上網友瘋傳許多把可樂娜和肺炎做連結的圖片、留言。 Because of the similarity of the two words, some internet users said on Twitter, “I can’t get the coronavirus, I don’t drink alcohol.” Images related to the confusion also went viral on Twitter. 事實上,「可樂娜」一字源自於拉丁文皇冠的意思,因為新型冠狀病毒(武漢肺炎病毒)外觀有著尖刺,就像小皇冠,而得其名。 “Corona” comes from the Latin word “crown.” The virus is named accordingly due to its crown-like spikes. 對此,可樂娜的美國母公司Constellation Brands也有所回應。根據Business Insider報導,公司表示,他們相信大多數的消費者知道武漢肺炎病毒和我們並沒有關係。 In response to growing confusion regarding the virus name, the beer manufacturer said most of their customers understand the difference between the virus and the beverage and know that there’s no relation whatsoever between the two. Next Article: 又一藝人發聲!吳鳳以母語籲土耳其 「幫台灣加入WHO」Turkish TV host voices support for Taiwan WHO bid 大陸武漢肺炎疫情擴及全球,鄰近病原區的台灣,礙於政治因素無法加入世界衛生組織(WHO),以接收第一手抗疫資訊,讓「防疫零漏洞」淪為口號。繼藝人黃立成後,2年前歸化中華民國籍的土耳其男星吳鳳,昨(3日)晚也在臉書發台灣發聲,他用母語向家鄉人說明:「為什麼台灣必須要加入WHO」! The Wolrd Health Organization (WHO) again blocked Taiwan from recent coronavirus conferences under pressure from China. In response to media reports, Ugur Rifat Karlova, a Turkish TV show host who received Taiwan citizenship in 2018, voiced his support for Taiwan’s WHO bid in a video on Facebook on Monday, explaining his reasons to the Turkish people. 吳鳳拍了一支長度7分多鐘的影片,當中他用母語及中文向家鄉土耳其喊話,「許多土耳其人寄訊息給我,連我妹妹也擔心我們這邊的狀況,所以我決定拍這支影片,把目前台灣防疫的情況介紹給他們,再加上想要讓土耳其人也知道為什麼台灣必須要參加WHO,畢竟台灣的醫療技術跟科技都很先進,希望有更多國際力量一起為台灣發聲」! In a 7-minute video, Rifat said in both Turkish and Chinese that many of his family members and friends in Turkey have expressed concern at the virus outbreak in Taiwan; therefore, he wanted to inform them and stress the need to join the WHO. 吳鳳說,台灣是醫療科技非常進步的國家,2300萬的人民都有健保,但很可惜台灣至今不是WHO的會員,「WHO對台灣這個做法很令人無法接受,其實不少發達國家如日本、加拿大、美國政府、歐盟都支持台灣成為WHO會員」! He stressed that Taiwan has advanced medical technology and a throughout health care system. Yet, Taiwan is excluded from WHO even though many countries have expressed support for Taiwan’s bid to join the WHO, including Japan, Canada, the U.S. and the EU. 接著吳鳳向土國人解釋為何台灣必須要參加WHO,並呼籲土國人可以幫忙分享、一起支持台灣。吳鳳表示,台灣先前經歷過SARS,擁有這方面的經驗與先進的醫療科技,近期爆發的武漢肺炎是國際危機,對此,台灣可以提供不少幫助給其他國家。 Furthermore, Rifat reminded the Turkish people that Taiwan went through the SARS outbreak thanks to its advanced medical technology and the skills of its medical staff. With such experience, Taiwan could provide other countries with medical assistance. 不少台灣網友看完影片,感動地說:「謝謝你為台灣在國際上發聲」、「謝謝您對台灣無私的精神」、「真正的台灣郎」、「比台灣人更愛台灣」! In response to the video, netizens commented said: “Thank you for voicing out for Taiwan.” One said, “Thank you for your selfless love for Taiwan.” The other said, “You are a real Taiwanese.”  Source article: https://chinapost.nownews.com/20200204-947423;https://chinapost.nownews.com/20200207-950216   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
Welcome to 15mins.today the home of English Shadowing. I'm your host Gavin and this is In-Tense Episode 34. And today we are continuing with our use of the definite article “the.” And today we're going to be looking at something quite simple, the names of companies.   Now just like people's names, when we use company names we do not put “the” in front of it, unless the company has “the” in its name. So, if the company is called The Bike Shop it will be called The Bike Shop. Now the only exception I know to this rule would be hotels, because usually what happens if you look at Taipei city we have one Regent Hotel so, “I'm going to the Regent.” Because there is one specific Regent Hotel, if we had 10 Holiday Inns, then we could say, “I'm going to a Holiday Inn. Which one? Oh, the one next to the airport.” Because we have one big airport again, so with company names no “the.”   So think about it, the only exception is hotels, because we have usually have one of those, so the Seven Seas Hotel, the Ambassador Hotel, the Hyatt, the Caesar Park, the Hilton Hotel. Otherwise for other companies no, “I work for Asus. I work for Acer. I work for IBM.” Great, very simple let's get started with our questions. Drill Sentences:   Does Jane work for Asus? Yes, she works for Asus. Does Jane work for Asus? No, she does not work for Asus.   Do you like Microsoft? Yes, I like Microsoft. Do you like Microsoft? No, I do not like Microsoft.   Does Apple sell expensive products? Yes, Apple sells expensive products. Does Apple sell expensive products? No, Apple does not sell expensive products.   Is Asus a Taiwanese company? Yes, Asus is a Taiwanese company. Is Asus a Taiwanese company? No, Asus is not a Taiwanese company.   Does Toyota make good cars? Yes, Toyota makes good cars. Does Toyota make good cars? No, Toyota does not make good cars.   Do you own a Seiko watch? Yes, I own a Seiko watch. Do you own a Seiko watch? No, I do not own a Seiko watch.   Will John and Mary be staying at the Brother Hotel? Yes, they will be staying at the Brother Hotel. Will John and Mary be staying at the Brother Hotel? No, they will not be staying at the Brother Hotel.   Have you ever stayed at The Four Seasons Hotel in Hong Kong? Yes, I have stayed at The Four Seasons Hotel in Hong Kong. Have you ever stayed at The Four Seasons hotel in Hong Kong? No, I have never stayed at The Four Seasons hotel in Hong Kong.   Do you work for Samsung? Yes, I work for Samsung. Do you work for Samsung? No, I do not work for Samsung.     Well, there you go guys. I hope that helps, so don't forget usually for companies no “the,” unless the company has “The” in its name, except for hotels and that's only for hotels that do not have many branches in a city. So, have a great time and keep practicing, bye!   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
Summary:   The boom of sharing economy brought about many types of transportation sharing companies around the world. However, in some countries, sharing economy battle to catch on. For many bike sharing companies, Rome is a difficult city to develop. In 2013, Rome discontinued the bike sharing program after the program ran out of money. Few years ago a Hong Kong company gave up their business in Rome because many of their bicycles landed up in the Tiber river. From there, a Singapore company also left Rome when the romans stole the bikes and broke them down for parts. Uber is confident that its sharing program will grow in Rome.   原跟讀文章: https://www.15mins.today/blog/745-maybe-this-time-the-bikes-won-t-end-up-in-the-river   Vocabulary and Sample Sentences:   Pull the plug idiom. – cancel / discontinue   The city of Rome pull the plug on its bike sharing program when it ran out of money. My boss stopped funding us, so we had to pull the plug on the project.   Run out of ph.v- used up (of supply)   The bank ran out of new bank notes over the Chinese New Year. My car ran out of gas before reaching Taichung.   Clog v. – blocked or become blocked   The highway is clogged with holiday traffic. Food waste usually clog our kitchen drain.   每日跟讀練習,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing每週Vocab精選詞彙Podcast,就在https://www.15mins.today/vocab每週In-TENSE文法跟讀,就在https://www.15mins.today/in-tense   用email訂閱就可以收到最新通勤學英語節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.783: As Climate Risks Rise, More Cities Tell Developers ‘No’   Glimpsed from a kayak on West Neck Creek, this swampy piece of land, a pocket of red maple and loblolly pine tucked behind growing subdivisions, does not look like the stuff of existential debate.   美國維吉尼亞州維吉尼亞海灘市南部的「西頸河自然區」,從一隻獨木舟上看去,有片生長著紅花槭和火炬松的沼澤地隱藏在日漸擴增的住宅群後方,看來不像是一場存亡論戰的題材。   But this is where Virginia Beach, squeezed between the clamor for new housing and the relentlessness of flooding worsened by climate change, decided to draw its line in the mud.   這塊泥地卻是維吉尼亞海灘市決定劃清界線的地方。這座城市處在兩股壓力的擠壓之下,一邊是人們對新住宅的強烈需求,另一邊則是因氣候變遷而加劇的無情洪患。   The city last year became one of a small but growing number of communities willing to say no to developers — despite their political and economic clout — when it rejected a proposal to build a few dozen homes on this soggy parcel of 50 acres, arguing that those homes would be unsafe. The developers sued, accusing officials of making their project a scapegoat as voters clamored for action after disastrous flooding.   維吉尼亞海灘市去年無視於開發商的政治與經濟影響力,決定向開發商說不,加入美國為數不多、但逐漸增加的群體的行列,當時市府拒絕了在這片50英畝濕地上建造數十間住宅的提案,認為這些房子安全堪虞。開發商控告市府,在選民疾呼為災難性洪水拿出行動之際,把他們的建案當作替罪羊。   In May, a judge ruled that Virginia Beach was within its rights to stop the development. The city’s experience could become a harbinger for others nationwide.   今年五月,法官裁定維吉尼亞海灘市有權終止開發案。這座城市的經驗可能預示美國其他城市會走的路。   “It’s a confrontation with reality,” Bobby Dyer, Virginia Beach’s mayor, said in an interview in his office. “Not everybody’s going to be happy.”   維吉尼亞海灘市市長戴爾在辦公室受訪時說:「這是跟現實對抗,不是每個人都會高興。」   As the Trump administration reverses efforts to fight global warming, local officials around the country are forced to grapple with more intense flooding, hurricanes, wildfires and other disasters. That pressure is colliding with development, which provides jobs, homes and taxes but which also can increase the future risk of disaster as construction spreads into floodplains or forests that are prone to calamity.   由於川普政府取消許多對抗全球暖化的措施,美國各處地方官員不得不應付更大的洪水、颶風、野火等災害。災害帶來的壓力與開發產生了衝突,開發土地能帶來就業機會、住宅和稅收,但由於建築範圍擴展到易生災情的氾濫平原和森林,使當地未來受災的風險增高。   The outcome of that battle will shape Americans’ vulnerability to climate change for generations — and so far, development seems to be prevailing. In many coastal states, homes are going up at the fastest rate in the most flood-prone areas. The number of new houses in what experts call the wildland-urban interface, where the wildfire threat tends to be greatest, increased 41% nationwide between 1990 and 2010.   這場戰役的結果,會決定未來幾個世代美國是否容易受氣候變遷危害,到目前為止,開發似乎占上風。在許多沿海州,新房子在最容易發生洪災的地區增加最快。專家所謂荒野與都市交界地帶,往往是野火威脅最大的地方,美國這種地帶的新屋數量卻在1990年到2010年間成長了41%。   But as the financial and emotional costs of disasters increase, so does the evidence of a shifting mindset.   不過,隨著災害造成的金錢與精神損失不斷增加,人們的心態也在改變。   The Pew Charitable Trusts, a research and advocacy group, released a report describing how a few cities and states have successfully reduced flooding vulnerability. Their actions are “a recipe for success” for others, said Laura Lightbody, director of Pew’s flood-prepared communities initiative.   美國研究與遊說團體「皮尤慈善信託基金」發布報告,描述一些城市和州如何成功降低洪水來襲時的損害。皮尤基金群體防範洪災措施主任蘿拉.萊特巴迪說,這些地方採取的行動是其他地方「成功的訣竅」。   The examples include Norfolk, Virginia, which last year imposed new rules on developers, including a requirement that every new home be elevated.   成功案例包括維吉尼亞州諾福克市,去年對開發商實施新規定,其中一項是要求每間新房地基都要墊高。   Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/347894/web/   更多跟讀練習單元,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing   用email訂閱就可以收到所有15mins.Today最新節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.782: To Woo Amazon, Nothing's Too Weird   Business leaders in Tucson, Arizona, have tried to mail Amazon’s chief executive, Jeff Bezos, a 21-foot cactus. The largest conference room in the Tulsa, Oklahoma, mayor’s office has been converted to a war room, with 50 volunteers poring over videos of Bezos.   In Philadelphia, hundreds of Wharton Business School students have a new fall semester assignment: Pitch the city to Amazon. And the mayor of Ottawa, Ontario, flew to Seattle last week to walk as close to Amazon’s headquarters as is publicly accessible.   亞歷桑納州土桑市的商界領袖試圖郵寄一株21呎高的仙人掌給亞馬遜執行長傑夫.貝佐斯。奧克拉荷馬州土爾沙市市長辦公室最大的一間會議室已改為戰情室,50名志工正在鑽研貝佐斯的各項影片。   在費城,賓州大學華頓商學院的數百名學生有一個新的秋季班作業:向亞馬遜推銷費城。加拿大安大略省渥太華市市長上周則飛往西雅圖,在對大眾開放的區域內,走到最靠近亞馬遜總部的地方。   “It’s like ‘The Amazing Race,'” said Jim Watson, the mayor of Ottawa. “You’ve got this cast of characters running toward the Holy Grail.”   Amazon, on the hunt for a place to build a second headquarters, where it plans to invest $5 billion and create 50,000 jobs, has begun an enormous competition among cities across North America. With a loose set of requirements such as proximity to an airport and walkability, the e-commerce behemoth has set officials on a journey to sell their towns, with the aim of getting in on what some are calling one of the largest economic development deals of the century.   渥太華市長吉姆.華森說:「它就像 《驚險大挑戰》。有這麼一堆角色衝向聖杯。」   亞馬遜正在尋找建造第二個總部的地點,計畫投資50億美元,創造5萬個就業機會。這項計畫已在北美各城市之間掀起巨大的競爭。由於開出的一系列條件十分寬鬆,如靠近機場、適宜步行等,亞馬遜這家電子商務巨擘已讓一些官員踏上推銷他們城市的旅程,目的是成為號稱本世紀最大經濟開發交易案的一份子。   That sometimes means going to extreme lengths to draw Bezos’ eye. Is Bezos impressed?   “We’re energized by the response,” said Adam Sedo, an Amazon spokesman. “We invited cities to think big, and we are starting to see their creativity.”   有時這意味得走極端才能吸引貝佐斯的眼光。貝佐斯被我們打動了嗎?   亞馬遜發言人亞當.塞多說:「這種回響很令人鼓舞。我們邀請各城市放膽去設想,而我們已開始看到他們的創意。」   For Jeff Cheney, the mayor of Frisco, Texas, a city of 160,000 about a half-hour drive from Dallas, the courtship includes offering to build his city around Amazon.   “Our city’s only about 60 percent built out, so we’ve got a lot of available land where we can build to suit,” Cheney said. “We play to win. We’re innovators. We’re forward thinkers, and we’re serious.”   對德州佛里斯科市長傑夫.錢尼來說,追求亞馬遜的方法包括提議以亞馬遜為中心建造城市。佛里斯科市距達拉斯約半小時車程,人口16萬。   錢尼說:「我們的城市只開發了約6成,我們還有很多可用的土地,可配合要求建造。既然加入了競爭就非贏不可。 我們是創新者。 我們是前衛的思想家,而且我們是認真的。」   City applications are not due until Oct. 19, but Cheney has already sent a video letter to Amazon. The video opens on him holding an Amazon box and saying, “Amazon, you’re growing your business, and we want to grow with you.” Jerry Jones, the owner of the Dallas Cowboys, is seen talking about catching the “Frisco Flu,” which the mayor’s office said was a phrase Jones came up with. Cheney also gets a Jamba Juice (Jamba Juice is based in Frisco).   In Canada, the selling point is, well, Canada.   城市申請的截止日期為10月19 日,但錢尼已發送了一封影片信函給亞馬遜。影片一開始是他手拿一個亞馬遜紙箱說道:「亞馬遜,你正在發展你的事業,我們希望和你一起成長。」職業美足聯盟球隊達拉斯牛仔隊東家傑里.瓊斯則將他得了「佛里斯科流感」掛在嘴上,市長辦公室說,這是瓊斯自己想出來的一句台詞 。錢尼則是得到一杯Jamba果汁(Jamba果汁集團總部在佛里斯科)。   在加拿大,唔,賣點就是加拿大。   Source: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/319070/web/   更多跟讀練習單元,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing   用email訂閱就可以收到所有15mins.Today最新節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.781: Software To Recognize Faces Is Found To Be Biased   The majority of commercial facial-recognition systems exhibit bias, according to a study from a federal agency released recently, underscoring questions about a technology increasingly used by police departments and federal agencies to identify suspected criminals.   根據美國聯邦機構新近發表的研究結果,多數商用臉部辨識系統存在偏差,凸顯出這種科技的問題,而警察部門和聯邦機構使用這項科技辨識可疑罪犯的程度正不斷增高。   The systems falsely identified African American and Asian faces 10 times to 100 times more than Caucasian faces, the National Institute of Standards and Technology reported. Among a database of photos used by law enforcement agencies in the United States, the highest error rates came in identifying Native Americans, the study found.   國家標準及科技研究所指出,比起白人臉孔,這些系統錯誤辨識非裔美國人和亞洲臉孔的機率高出10至100倍。研究發現,在美國執法單位使用的照片資料庫中,辨識美國原住民的錯誤率最高。   The technology also had more difficulty identifying women than men. And it falsely identified older adults up to 10 times more than middle-aged adults.   這項科技辨識女性也比男性更困難,而且辨識老人的錯誤率高達中年人的10倍。   The new report comes at a time of mounting concern from lawmakers and civil rights groups over the proliferation of facial recognition. Proponents view it as an important tool for catching criminals and tracking terrorists. Tech companies market it as a convenience that can be used to help identify people in photos or in lieu of a password to unlock smartphones.   這份新報告發表之際,國會議員和公民運動團體對臉部辨識的普及正日益感到憂慮。支持者視它為抓捕罪犯和追蹤恐怖分子的重要工具,科技公司將它行銷成方便好用的東西,可辨識照片中的人或作為密碼解鎖智慧手機。   Civil liberties experts, however, warn that the technology — which can be used to track people at a distance without their knowledge — has the potential to lead to ubiquitous surveillance, chilling freedom of movement and speech. Last year, San Francisco, Oakland and Berkeley in California and the Massachusetts communities of Somerville and Brookline banned government use of the technology.   然而,公民自由專家警告,這項科技能在人們不知情的狀況下從一定距離外追蹤他們,有可能導致無所不在的監控,壓抑行動和言論自由。去年,加州的舊金山、奧克蘭和柏克萊,以及麻州的薩默維爾和布魯克萊恩等社區,皆明令禁止政府使用此一科技。   “One false match can lead to missed flights, lengthy interrogations, watch list placements, tense police encounters, false arrests or worse,” Jay Stanley, a policy analyst at the American Civil Liberties Union, said in a statement. “Government agencies including the FBI, Customs and Border Protection and local law enforcement must immediately halt the deployment of this dystopian technology.”   「一個錯誤的比對,就可能導致錯過班機、冗長的訊問、列入觀察名單、與警察緊張的遭遇、錯誤逮捕甚至更糟的狀況。」美國公民自由聯盟的政策分析師傑.史丹利在聲明中這麼說。「包括聯邦調查局、海關及邊境保護局和地方執法單位等政府機構,必須立即停止部署這項敵托邦科技。」   The federal report is one of the largest studies of its kind. The researchers had access to more than 18 million photos of about 8.5 million people from American mug shots, visa applications and border-crossing databases.   這份聯邦報告是同類報告中規模最大者之一。研究人員取用來自美國嫌犯大頭照、簽證申請及跨越邊境資料庫中,約850萬人的1800萬張以上的照片。   The National Institute of Standards and Technology tested 189 facial-recognition algorithms from 99 developers, representing the majority of commercial developers. They included systems from Microsoft, biometric technology companies like Cognitec, and Megvii, an artificial intelligence company in China.   國家標準及科技研究所測試來自99個開發商的189個臉部辨識演算程式,涵蓋大多數商用開發商,包括微軟系統,生物科技公司如Cognitec,以及中國人工智慧公司曠視科技。   The federal report confirms earlier studies from MIT that reported that facial-recognition systems from some large tech companies had much lower accuracy rates in identifying the female and darker-skinned faces than the white male faces.   這份聯邦報告證實麻省理工學院先前的研究結果,一些大型科技公司的臉部辨識系統,辨識女性和較深膚色臉孔的正確率,比辨識白人男性低得多。   Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/349075/web/#2L-16321634L   更多跟讀練習單元,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing   用email訂閱就可以收到所有15mins.Today最新節目通知。
每日英語跟讀 Ep.780: Severe childhood deprivation reduces brain size, study finds   Children who experience severe deprivation early in life have smaller brains in adulthood, researchers have found.   研究人員發現,幼年時受到嚴重剝奪的兒童,在成年後,其大腦較小。   The findings are based on scans of young adults who were adopted as children into UK families from Romania’s orphanages that rose under the regime of the dictator Nicolae Ceausescu.   這項發現是根據一些年輕人的腦部掃描,他們幼時被收留在羅馬尼亞獨裁者尼古拉‧希奧塞古政權所設立的孤兒院,後來被英國家庭收養。   Now experts say that despite the children having been adopted into loving, nurturing families in the early 1990s, the early neglect appears to have left its mark on their brain structures.   專家們如今說,即便這些孩子已在一九九○年代初被充滿愛心的家庭收養、受到悉心照顧,但幼時的疏於照料,似乎已在他們的大腦結構留下了印記。   “I think the most striking finding is … that the effects on the brain have persisted,” said Prof Edmund Sonuga-Barke, a co-author of the study from King’s College London, who added that the results showed neuroplasticity had limits.   這項研究的共同作者、倫敦大學國王學院的艾德蒙‧索努加─巴克教授表示:「我認為最顯著的發現是……對大腦所造成的影響持續存在」。他補充說,研究結果顯示,「神經可塑性」是有其侷限的。   “The idea that everything is recoverable, no matter what your experience … isn’t necessarily true — even with the best care you can still see those signs of that earlier adversity,” he said.   他說:「認為無論經歷了什麼,一切都得以康復……這種觀念不見得是正確的──即便〔後來〕受到最好的照顧,你還是可以看到幼時的苦難所留下的痕跡」。   The plight of the undernourished children, who had little social contact and received insufficient care, shocked the world when it came to light after the fall of the communist government in 1989.   這些營養不良、少有社會接觸、得不到足夠照料的兒童,其慘況在一九八九年共產黨政府垮台後曝光,震驚了世界。希奧塞古的苛政禁止墮胎及避孕,沒有孩子的人則被課稅。結果造成大量兒童淪落孤兒院,生活在惡劣的環境中。   Ceausescu’s oppressive policies had banned abortion and contraception, while those without children were taxed. As a result, large numbers of children ended up in orphanages living in terrible conditions. Previous studies involving the adoptees have shown they had marked cognitive difficulties as children — although these improved considerably into adulthood — while they also had high rates of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and, as adults, high levels of anxiety and depression.   先前對這些被收養者的研究顯示,他們在兒童時期就有明顯的認知困難(雖然這些問題在成年後已有顯著改善),也有很高的機率患有注意力不足過動症(ADHD),以及在成年後患有焦慮及憂鬱症。   Writing in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sonuga-Barke and colleagues told how they carried out brain scans and other measures of 67 Romanian adoptees who had spent between three and 41 months living in severe deprivation as children. At the time of the scans the adoptees were between 23 and 28 years old.   索努加─巴克及其同仁在《美國國家科學院院刊》上寫道,他們對六十七名羅馬尼亞被收養者進行腦部掃描和其他測量,這些被收養者童年時曾生活在嚴重缺乏照顧的情況中,為期三個月至四十一個月不等。他們在接受腦部掃描時,年齡在二十三至二十八歲之間。   The team also took brain scans from 21 adults of a similar age who had been born and adopted in the UK before they were six months old. The results revealed the Romanian adoptees had on average an 8.6 percent smaller brain overall than their UK peers. The team also found the size of the reduction was linked to the length of time spent in the Romanian orphanages: each additional month was linked to a 3cm3 lower total brain volume. “The more deprivation they had, the smaller their brains are,” said Sonuga-Barke.   研究小組另外也對二十一個年齡相仿的成人進行了腦部掃描,這些人是在英國出生,並在六個月大之前被收養。結果顯示,被收養的羅馬尼亞人,其大腦之平均大小,比那組英國同齡者小了百分之八點六。研究小組還發現,大腦所減少的體積,與在羅馬尼亞孤兒院中所待的時間長短有關:在孤兒院的時間每增加一個月,大腦的總體積便減少三立方公分。索努加─巴克說:「他們被剝奪得越多,大腦就越小」。   The team’s analysis showed the smaller brain size explained the reduced IQ and, at least in part, the higher rates of ADHD found among the Romanian adoptees.   研究小組的分析顯示,較小的大腦可解釋為何其智商較低,以及至少部分解釋了,為何被收養的羅馬尼亞人患有ADHD的比率較高。   Prof Denis Mareschal, from Birbeck, University of London, said the study highlighted the importance of providing enriched environments in early infancy and childhood.   倫敦大學伯貝克學院的丹尼斯‧馬勒沙教授說,這項研究凸顯出在嬰幼兒早期與兒童時期提供富足環境的重要性。   Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/01/14/2003729181/2   更多跟讀練習單元,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing   用email訂閱就可以收到所有15mins.Today最新節目通知。
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Comments (12)

Rachel Mo

發音很清楚,really good👍

Jul 6th
Reply (1)

邱魚

上面例子,都是過去進行式, 而非標題上的過去完成式喔

Jun 9th
Reply (1)

Rukeith

全英文對我來說整個好吃力,我程度太差了

May 7th
Reply (1)

Petty Chan

天啊!這個節目超棒的! 可以利用零碎時間練習,省時又有效率。 篇幅不長,不會有負擔。

Apr 24th
Reply (1)

Corinna Chen

內容豐富多元 短篇文章對聽讀都很有幫助!

Feb 13th
Reply (3)
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