DiscoverFinding Genius Podcast
Finding Genius Podcast

Finding Genius Podcast

Author: Richard Jacobs

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Podcast interviews with genius-level (top .1%) practitioners, scientists, researchers, clinicians and professionals in Cancer, 3D Bio Printing, CRISPR-CAS9, Ketogenic Diets, the Microbiome, Extracellular Vesicles, and more.

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2260 Episodes
In this podcast, returning guest and computational biologist and author Eugene V. Koonin and Richard examine intriguing angles of virus behavior. Dr. Koonin is a contributor to Richard's upcoming book on viruses, and Richard sees him as a cornerstone of his own biological knowledge. An expert on the origin and evolution of life, Dr. Koonin graces listeners with fascinating ideas, such as Where viruses sit in the continuum of the evolution of life on earth in relation to ancient replicons and the first cells, What his definition of a virus is and how that collides with the categories of living/nonliving, and How he describes the "sensing" abilities of viruses and explains virus competition and identity. Eugene V. Koonin is a senior investigator at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the National Library of Medicine, and the National Institute of Health. He's the author of several books, including Logic of Chance: The Nature and Origin of Biological Evolution. One of a series where Richard interviews contributors to an upcoming book, this conversation explores Dr. Koonin's early days of studying virology and how far science has since come in understanding the machinations involved. It was, in fact, his first studies on virus genomes and trying to decipher those codes that lead him into his present focus on computational biology.  Richard steers him towards several important questions on the nature of viruses and this gives Dr. Koonin opportunities to speak on some of their most surprising characteristics. He asserts that viruses are an intrinsic part of the biological realm and have their own evolutionary fate or trajectory; in other words, they experience their own selective factors that in turn shape their evolution. In this sense, he adds, they are substantially independent from their host; however, they are also completely dependent on their host for energy production. Therefore, they have same characteristics of life and yet are missing others. It is the tension in this mix of evolutionary force and obligate nature that makes them worthy of such discussions. Listen in to enjoy this intelligent entry into virus behaviors. For more about his work, search his name in science publication aggregates and see his website at NCBI: Available on Apple Podcasts:
Without glycogen, we couldn't go very far. Dr. Sullivan is a specialist in the glycogen molecule, which stores glucose, our energy source. In this podcast, he describes exciting discoveries and future research centered on glycogen presence that might help explain the connection between diabetes and kidney disease. Listen and hear answers to these questions and more: How does diabetes affect the kidneys? How do glycogen molecules differ in the liver of diabetic patients and why is that important? What does glycogen do to the kidney that might lead to diabetic kidney disease stages? Mitchell Sullivan is pursuing a postdoc at the University of Queensland in a group that investigates glycation, diabetes, and how diabetic bodily systems handle extra glucose. Dr. Sullivan in particular follows glycogen formation in the organs. He's just setting out on a new study connecting diabetes and kidney health by focusing on glycogen presence in the kidneys of diabetics. Normally, glycogen is in the liver and muscle tissue, waiting to supply us with different kinds of energy needs. But microscopy shows glycogen in the kidneys of diabetic patients that likely leads to damage and inflammation. The findings may lead to better therapeutics and prevention measures, from a more effective diabetes and kidney disease diet to medical interventions. Listeners will have the privilege of hearing straight from Dr. Mitchell the hypothesis for this study that's just begun. He explains with clarity why the structure of this glycogen in diabetic kidneys differs from its normal form and is significantly insoluble in this form. Furthermore, it sticks together in clumps of starch-like granules in the thick ascending limb of the nephron. He's investigating if these cells that aren't accustomated to glycogen become overwhelmed and the glycogen gets stuck, leading to damage and inflammation that make for one of the common kidney failure causes. What's most interesting is that his PhD work on glycogen in the liver and muscle tissue of diabetics makes this hypothesis seem more likely. Listen in to hear why that's the case and more about this study that might bring scientists that much closer to improving diabetes and kidney health. To find out more about Dr. Mitchell's work, search his name in research aggregates, see his information page with Queensland University, and feel free to email him: Available on Apple Podcasts:
Dr. Reid specializes in host pathogen interactions studies such as investigating the chikungunya virus infection and Ebola virus microbiology.  A returning guest, he and Richard discuss all things virus in this episode as Dr. Reid will contribute to Richard's upcoming book on viruses. Their conversation covers Why it's significant that all life forms have associated viruses, including ancient bacteria discovered recently in glacial inlands that have phages (viruses that infect bacteria); What implications exciting virus discoveries may hold, such as the giant Mimivirus, which may prove an evolutionary bridge; and How we can investigate virus characteristics like means of entry and coopting of cellular machinery to better understand means of replication and evolutionary success as well as how cellular machinery works in the first place. St. Patrick Reid is an assistant professor in the Pathology and Microbiology Department in the University Of Nebraska Medical Center College Of Medicine.  In a previous podcast, he and Richard discuss chikungunya diagnosis and pathology and Ebola virus symptoms and behavior. He begins this discussion explaining his journey into the field, which includes exciting postdoc work in France on Ebola. Now his researcher involves host pathogen interactions and he's particularly interested in different host proteins a virus has to recruit to replicate. The conversation takes a turn into exploring what scientists have assumed about viruses compared to recent discoveries that may take that knowledge in new directions. For example, he talks about ancient phage discoveries in glacial bacteria and phage-bacteria coevolution. He describes an interest in how viruses that infect bacteria allow those bacteria to live in a community of other bacterium. The viruses actually play a role in enabling those bacteria to survive. He discusses numerous other virus characteristics and implications, from DNA versus RNA viruses and what that dictates regarding habits like latency.  He also addresses when that understanding changes with new discoveries, such as finding Ebola virus in chimps months after infection. They also talk a little virus philosophy and cover topics like what enables virus entry into cells and how tropism works. For more about Dr. Reid and his work, see his website at the university,, and follow him on Twitter as @StPatrickReid3. Available on Apple Podcasts:
While Dr. Jospeh Masci could speak on numerous specific issues in the realm of infectious diseases microbiology, today's discussion centers on a general exploration of virus behaviors and characteristics.  In this podcast, he addresses Why he centered his work on the study of common infectious diseases and those with special urgency such as HIV/AIDS and COVID-19;  How varied virus behaviors are, from the speed at which they infect to their morphology and their means of infection; and How these behaviors indicate even more mystery about the history of virus origin, relationship to the evolution of bacteria, and intracellular-dependence. Joseph R. Masci is a clinical professor of Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Environmental Medicine and Public Health, and Global Health at Mount Sinai. His expertise includes HIV/AIDS diagnosis and treatment, general infectious diseases, tropical medicine, and emergency preparedness. He's currently coauthoring a book with Richard about viruses. He begins by describing how he was inspired by the infectious disease faculty in medical school and went on to work in the area, meeting the AIDS crisis and bioterrorism concerns post 9/11, and now is heavily focused on investigating COVID-19. The conversation turns into speculations about whether viruses should be considered alive and if that designation ultimately maters. This opens up a deep dive into virus behaviors. One particular characteristic that varies by virus and therefore effects infectious disease treatment is latency or the dormant stage. He discusses how such a period is quite common in many viruses, commenting that HIV can have long latency while cold viruses might hold dormancy for only a day or two. He connects this with how the virus takes hold in human cells and why this timing differs according to the virus mechanisms. They also discuss what factors dictate virulence and when passage from human to human increases or decreases the virulent attributes with specific examples. He adds that it's important to consider what the host contributes to the interaction as well as other organisms and compounds. The discussion also delves into virus origins, the nature of bacteria and virus coevolution, signaling between viruses, and the possibility of viruses working together with job-specific attributes. For more, see his NIH work and his website at Mount Sinai: Available on Apple Podcasts:
The COVID-19 situation isn’t the first of its kind—not entirely, at least. For as many times as you’ve heard voices claiming it’s triggered the “new normal,” you should have also heard the voices of reason and evidence and logic, which assert that it’s really more like an old normal, yet one that is causing unprecedented levels of damage to the underpinnings of society. Why haven’t you heard these voices? Because they’ve been censored and suppressed by those who stand to gain by spreading fear and lies. Press play to learn the following: How big pharma has impacted the news media in profound and extremely consequential ways, and how this relates to the COVID-19 situation How the AIDS panic of the 1980s eerily parallels that of COVID-19, and which players have played a starring role in both Where the funding for scientific research on infectious diseases comes from, and how this influences who can conduct research (i.e. who has a voice in medical science) Ken McCarthy, a pioneer in the movement to commercialize the internet, an expert on internet advertising and marketing, and former student of neuroscience at Princeton University, presents an eye-opening look at COVID-19 in the context of global history. It’s one you won’t hear on the news, and for good reason, which McCarthy explains in depth. This explanation leads to so many others, such as how to develop and inseminate brilliant propaganda, what it takes to actually implement a war, what it means to put a human being on a ventilator, how to understand the Nuremberg Code in the current context of COVID-19, the truth about Bill Gates’ record as a businessman, the surprising role in and influence on bioethics wielded by Christine Grady, Anthony Fauci’s wife, the very real prospect of digital IDs as vaccine schedule verification, the important distinction between central and commercial banks, and more. Visit for more information.    Some Important Links to Explore: Fauci's First Fraud: The New York Problem: Ken McCarthy's top CoVid videos: Ken McCarthy's top Brasscheck videos: Available on Apple Podcasts:
This is a unique show in the Finding Genius series. Podcast founder and host Richard Jacobs sites Perry Marshall’s ideas as the impetus for starting the Finding Genius podcast. In this discussion listeners can learn more about why and hear about an upcoming symposium Marshall has helped construct on cancer and evolutionary biology. He explains What the basic ideas of his book Evolution 2.0 are, namely an argument for a new model for evolution that better fits organisms’ active adaptations; How cancer is evolution gone wild and why better cancer treatment necessitates adopting this new conception of evolution; and Which topics and speakers will appear in the Cancer and Evolution Symposium and a preview of several exciting findings they will present. Perry Marshall is an author and highly influential business consultant with an electrical engineering background. In this discussion, he connects the foundational ideas in Evolution 2.0 with cutting-edge cancer science. Marshall lost his father to cancer at age 17 and has followed theories behind its treatment ever since. He reminds listeners that common cancer therapy treatment only works routinely with early stage cancer. Alternatively, he says that when cancer reaches stages 3 and 4, survival chances are not that much better than they were in 1930. Therefore, there must be a lag in how we are addressing serious cancer diagnoses. This lag is connected with a traditional view of passive evolutionary theory rather than theories like that of Professor Henry Heng, who claims evolution is actively engineered by organisms themselves; in addition, they are able to pass those engineered traits to their offspring.  Henry Heng is one of the speakers at the upcoming Cancer and Evolution Symposium along with Columbia University Medical Center's Azra Raza and evolutionary theorist James Shapiro from the University of Chicago. Dr. Heng connects this theory of evolution and cancer, noting that treatments like chemo destroy about 98% of the cancer cells while the few remaining develop massive wholesale restructuring of their DNA and are then more equipped to spread and survive. Importantly, this restructuring is active rather than a random accident of mutations.  Marshall explains these ideas in more detail and discusses other topics covered by the speakers. He describes the symposium as a world-class collection of cancer and evolutionary theorists coming together to address cancer evolution and disable the cancer treatment lag. The symposium will work via Zoom and takes place October 14th through 16th. To sign up and learn more, see the symposium website: Available on Apple Podcasts:
Dr. Anderson' research focuses on the interaction between genetics, evolutionary biology, and tropical diseases. He works with the two most dominant parasites that infect humans and cause particularly high mortality in children:  those species that cause malaria and schistosomiasis.  In this podcast, he discusses How genome sequencing methods play a major role in understanding infection patterns, Why genome sequencing benefits research by informing region-specific drug cocktails, and Why drug resistance in parasites is a daunting problem and how tools like linkage analysis genetics tell scientists about the related fitness cost of resistance. Tim Anderson is a professor and co-leads the Disease Intervention and Prevention Program at Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. He helps listeners understand the basics of how genome sequencing techniques are used to determine relatedness and other factors in parasites that can then help scientists understand their life cycle, population genetics evolution, and how drug resistance develops and might be combatted. He works specifically in the Myanmar border region but discusses the differences in infection rates between areas to explain parasite infection characteristics. For example, they've found that people who get bit very rarely tend to get extremely sick whereas there seems to be some immunity in areas of higher infection bit rates. However, ultimately, this translates to a U-shaped mortality between these two extremes and he explains why. Dr. Anderson also discusses some important work by colleagues and how these different areas of research come together to create a greater understanding of parasite activity. He describes what drug resistance looks like and gives several examples as the resistance mechanics varies with the action of the drug. After explaining the basics in more detail and some exciting finds, he describes his end goal as to better understand the evolution of drug resistance alongside the fitness cost of drug resistant genes. This has progressed to following how parasites eventually get around those fitness costs.  For more, see his information page,, and search his name in PubMed for publications. Available on Apple Podcasts:
In one line of research, Professor Levi Morran observes the coevolution of C. elegans strains and microbial pathogens through population level biology to ask how and why sex evolved and why it is maintained. This is part of his overall research into how genetics and evolution affect the interaction of hosts and microbes. In this podcast, he explores Why scientists are curious about how hosts establish interactions with their microbes and what that looks like, evolutionary speaking; What advantages comes with his lab's method of experimental evolution and where on the continuum it lies in relation to evolution theory, and  What significant results developed with their experiment comparing self-fertilizing reproduction versus sexual reproduction in the presence of pathogens. Levi Morran is an assistant professor of biology at Emory University and is interested in factors affecting adaptive evolution. His lab utilizes experimental evolution, which means they perform evolution experiments in real time with genetics biology and evolution biology. They mostly use particular strains of C. elegans, which go through several generations quite rapidly. He explains this with a concrete example: when his lab explored the antagonistic interactions between a host and microbes and the influence of the evolution of sex, they set up populations of C. elegans that would produce sexually and through self-fertilization. They found that the self-fertilizing populations did not adapt to the pathogens and mostly died out.  He explains why he thinks this happened and how they may explore this further. He also explores general benefits of experimental evolution and the advantages it offers researchers such as the ability to control and spin factors that can address very specific questions in certain conditions. He adds that conditions in nature are quite different, yet these experimental studies can point evolution theory in helpful directions. In addition, he explains the level of considerations an experimental evolution study must undertake, from seeking and using specific strains of nematodes fitting what the experimental questions ask, to unlocking characteristics in those nematodes to produce populations that will undergo, for example, sexual reproduction. He also addresses issues of microbiomes in nature versus the lab and questions regarding epigenetics. For more, see his lab's website: Available on Apple Podcasts:
Dr. Oliver Schacht says that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious pandemic that needs as much attention as COVID-19. In fact, 700,000 people now die annually across the globe from AMR infections. In this podcast, he addresses Why antibiotic resistance is a problem that merits a global response, How slower old-school testing of bacterial infections works as one of the causes of antibiotic resistance by necessitating broad spectrum antibiotics, and What are technologies that OpGen and other companies are developing to improve testing from rapid PCR testing to faster next generation sequencing.  Oliver Schacht, Ph.D., is the Chief Executive Officer for both OpGen and Curetis and is an expert in the molecular diagnostics industry. He addresses causes of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic resistance mechanisms, but spends the majority of the podcast explaining why it is a world-wide issue and what solutions are available now and in the near future. At the center of these solutions lies the need to identify the species of antibiotic resistant bacteria and its resistance factor quickly. This means better, faster testing to insure more accurate treatment and less over prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics. He adds that using broad spectrum antibiotics aggressively to fight undiagnosed infections leads to effective and rapid evolution of bacteria towards resistant adaptations. He says that if we keep using these broad spectrum antibiotics, some projections predict that by the year 2050 we may have 10 million deaths a year from these infections globally. He details the history of testing and explains why the technology has lagged. In a nutshell, we're still doing what we have been doing for 150 years, which requires significant time for cultures to grow and test.  He then explains how OpGen and other companies are developing rapid PCR tests as well as faster and better next generation sequence testing. He predicts the cost and timing for these will continue to decline and that will only improve the quality and helpfulness of the testing. Finally, he carries a global theme throw this discussion, explaining that this issue is analogous to climate change alleviation: there's not a simple fix and the issue can't just be handled locally—this requires a global approach to be effective. Listen in for more details and discussion about these issues. For more, see the company's website at In addition, they are active in all social media outlets. Available on Apple Podcasts:
After Dr. Myles Spar noticed that women far outnumbered men as integrative medicine patients, he worked to reframe the messaging. In this podcast, he discusses Why integrative medicine provides key preventative health and wellness information often absent from internal medicine practices, What are three main hormones in men that are important to address and why, and How he approaches sex, body, and brains issues in men to help them achieve their health goals. Dr. Myles Spar is the Chief Medical Officer of Vault Health and specializes in men's health and wellness. He serves as a clinical faculty member at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the University of Arizona Schools of Medicine. His volunteer time with Doctors Without Borders encouraged him to pursue integrative medicine fully on his return. He starts by explaining how earlier experiences led him to question the messaging men receive to not seek help. This along with his own observations of the scarcity of men as patients seeking health and wellness information from various types of integrative medicine practices encouraged him to provide messaging more adaptive to men's needs.  He tells listeners about health considerations and centers this discussion on hormones. He explains that testosterone is the main one listeners may be familiar with but adds that there are many more male hormones to consider like DHEA and estradiol. Dr. Spar also describes his initial approach with patients, how he starts by developing an understanding of what's important to that patient in terms of health goals and motivations. In other words, he learns what patients want their health to achieve for them, or alternatively, what is their ill health getting in the way of. He divides these issues by sex, body, or brain and proceeds to evaluate based on those goals. He also discusses levels of testosterone and the nuances behind the numbers as well as different types of testosterone treatments from pellets to pills to other means and advantages and disadvantages for each.  For more, see Vault Health's website at and click on "Get Started" for a telehealth appointment.  Available on Apple Podcasts:
Renowned for his knowledge and expertise in biology, University of Oxford Professor Denis Noble once again returns to the show to share his insight. Today’s episode deals with the topic of viruses, and it is the first in what will be a thorough and compelling series on virology. Throughout the course of this series, Richard Jacobs will interview approximately 30 scientists and researchers, each with something unique and meaningful to contribute to the conversation. In this episode, you will learn: Why, evolutionarily speaking, some types of viruses multiply within the host’s cells before killing the host’s cells soon after, and why other viruses reside dormant within cells for years, often undetected What is actually going on during the “latency period” of a viral infection, and how the answer might have more to do with the reaction of the host’s own immune system than the virus itself Why there seems to be a correlation between the mechanisms for viral spread and the types of cells infected by a given virus   The COVID-19 situation has created an unprecedented global stir of questions about viruses: Why would one type of virus have such a different structure and function than another type of virus? How do viruses spread, and why do they seem to trigger different immune responses in different people? Why can it be so challenging to find an effective way to eliminate them? Noble provides a great deal of compelling information on these topics and more, including the possible connection between exosomes and the origin of viruses, the ways in which the microbiome might change around a cell once the cell is infected by a virus, how viruses find their targets, and the role of viruses in evolution and speciation.   Learn more about Denis Noble’s work and publications at Available on Apple Podcasts:
Returning guest and founder of Quantgene, Jo Bhakdi, discusses his work at Quantgene in the COVID-19 testing arena. Press play to learn: What the difference is between specificity and sensitivity, and why a consideration of both is critical for COVID-19 testing What the difference is between antigen, antibody, and PCR-based COVID-19 test procedures, and why Bhakdi believes it is so important to develop real-time rapid PCR-based testing for COVID-19 How the specific virus causing COVID-19 is able to be isolated and identified through PCR-based testing Quantgene’s genomic and liquid biopsy technologies have played a significant role in advancing the speed and accuracy of cancer identification. Now, they’re focusing their efforts on COVID-19 testing methods. “We are all about real-time medical intelligence,” says Bhakdi, as he explains that medicine is mostly a data problem, with the COVID-19 situation being no exception. According to Bhakdi, the COVID-19 testing crisis is not a molecular diagnostic problem, but a time problem: it’s simply taking far too long for people to get their results. Bhakdi explains what PCR testing is and how it works. This includes an explanation of how the amount of genomic material doubles with each amplification cycle in the PCR procedure, in what way the test involves DNA sequencing, and the role of the protein polymerase in synthesizing strands of DNA. He also explains what Quantgene’s COVID-19 test provides that others don’t, and the enormous demand for a reliable test that delivers fast results.  Visit to learn more. Available on Apple Podcasts:
Courtney Sexton is a PhD student researching what we can learn from other species about our own and how to better interact with animals that share our habitat, like dogs. She's especially interested in the evolution of nonverbal communication. In this podcast, she discusses Implications of the long history of human and dog coevolution, Examples of dog facial expressions and dog behavior signs that might be more complex than we think, and Ways listeners can have their dogs participate in some exciting online studies through video uploads and other methods. Courtney Sexton is a PhD student with the Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology at The George Washington University. She describes for listeners the different forms of communication throughout the animal kingdom, including among human animals. She adds that an interesting aspect of this involves human-dog coevolution, and studying the relationship may lead to some dog behaviors explained. In fact, dogs are unique in that they've adapted to communicate with people almost as well as among themselves. Humans and dogs have been cohabitating for roughly 30,000 years and dog social behavior has some similar patterns with humans; she points to paired mating systems exhibited by dogs and wolves in the paleo hunter-gatherer era as one example.  Interestingly, dogs have gotten better at interpreting our signals than vice-versa. There are many examples of humans simplifying the understanding of dog body language when something such as tail wagging can signify a gamut of emotions. Courtney also explains that dogs pick up a great deal of information from our own facial expressions. She describes her current research comparing fascial muscle development in dogs with and without hair coloring markings that exaggerate certain expressions. This stems from a similar study done on primates. She adds that researchers are struggling to find dogs to observe because of the pandemic shut downs and points listeners to resources, including her own Primate Genomics Lab, if they are interested in participating in video studies with their dogs. For more, see her lab site,, and her department's website,  Available on Apple Podcasts:
Jeff Chilton has been involved one way or another in organic mushroom cultivation and mushroom health benefits since the 1970s. In this podcast, he tells listeners Which compounds in fungi boost our immune system and how the supplement industry is making them more available to consumers, What processes they use to extract these beneficial compounds that are then supplement-ready, and What mushroom farming looks like in the U.S. and China and how mushrooms are produced. After many years spent in organic mushroom farming, Jeff Chilton started Nammex in 1989 to sell mushrooms to the herbal supplement industry. He explains that it took a while to educate North Americans to how essential mushrooms had been in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. His company produces extracts of quality mushrooms that these supplement companies integrate and sell for functional or medicinal purposes.  Jeff gives listeners a broader picture of the value of various fungi in the diet, and says that there are at least 270 different medicinal mushrooms with supporting research showing benefits. His company works consistently with about 10 to 12 species that have an overlap between established scientifically-proven benefits and a history of use in traditional Chinese medicine.  He explains that mushroom supplements benefit our immune system modulation. He describes the process they use to produce the powdered extract as well as some of the qualities of popular species like the shitake and the reishi mushroom.  He also tells listeners about their biology and growing process and lists some compound benefits, such as for beta glucans and ergosterol. He finishes by describing some newer products, such as cordyceps, a fungus harvested from caterpillars.  Find more on their website,, and for a division of the company that sells directly to consumers, see Available on Apple Podcasts:
Professor Wood specializes in the roles of soil microbial communities and is currently studying the importance of microbial diversity impacting plant diversity in rainforests. In this podcast, she explores How microbial communities in soil may work to reduce plant species that are too dominate, Why studying the importance of microbes in the environment involves following them by trait rather than by taxonomy, and How a better understanding of the ecology of microbial communities in the rainforest may lend itself to following rainforest response to fire damage. Dr. Jen Wood is an associate lecturer in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Microbiology at La Trobe University in Australia. She's just begun co-heading a laboratory that centers on understanding the role of microbes in ecosystems so that scientists might better manage these systems, whether in an agricultural, rainforest, or human-gut setting. She describes a particular study near Queensland examining why rainforests are so botanically diverse. They've observed that something happens when the plants move from the seedling to sapling stage that manages and sets up this effective balance. The evidence points to microbes killing off dominate species, maintaining a degree of balance.  She discusses many findings, challenges, and procedures that spin from this study. For example, when they try and compare soil patches, the microbial turnover is too great and the rhizosphere is so interconnected that separating out by species is too complicated. Therefore, rather than compare three seedling patches taxonomically, they compare them by microbial traits. A trait is any physical or morphological attribute that helps an organism compete. Examples include motility, presence of efflux pumps, ability to produce antibiotics, and ability to undergo chemotaxis. She notes that when comparing three patches by microbial traits, they've found patterns in the data. She also addresses fire in rainforests and studying recovery and ways to understand competition in these environments. For more, see her information page on La Trobe's website,; her personal website,; and follow her on Twitter, @JW_ilikedirt. Available on Apple Podcasts:
In the early part of her career, Melanie Weller saw mostly patients who'd gone through several other treatment systems without symptom relief. Treating this population put her in a position to consider vagus nerve symptoms as a means for addressing a road block of sorts in their body. In this podcast, she discusses Common manifestations of vagus nerve pain and the connection with our horizontal system, Behavioral connections to vagus nerve problems such as an increase in our "flight and fight" reactivity, and Therapeutic methods and treatments for vagus nerve anatomy. Melanie Weller has been a physical therapist for about 25 years. She tells listeners about her gradual discovery of vagus nerve importance and how it even lends itself to stress management. When she began her career treating people who had not had success elsewhere, there was so much to address that she would start with one or two things she could do that would clear a large segment of issues,  such as range of motion. She found her work with the vagus nerve produced dramatic results. She explains that the vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve, coming out of the brain stem and progressing all the way down the spinal cord. It enervates our vocal cord, heart, digestive system, and sweat glands. She adds that it is our "grace under pressure" system as well and is dialed down when we experience "fight and flight" reactions. Therefore, she discusses the emotional crossover with this system. Treating the vagus nerve effectively can therefore lend itself to elevated stress management techniques. These days, she is mainly seeing clients through online formats and is still able to offer effective treatment. She says that there's nothing better than helping someone get rid of pain and limitations they've been dealing with a long time. She's currently looking for research partners and working on a book. See her website for more: Available on Apple Podcasts:
In the world of diabetes, Khambatta and Barbaro are teaching something that no one else is, and it’s working. In this episode, you will learn: What it means to be insulin resistant, and how insulin resistance develops in the body How refined sugar differs from natural sugar in terms of the mechanisms by which they are metabolized and promote insulin secretion in the body Nutrition facts and the best diet for type 1 diabetes (and why it’s not what you’ve been told) How even a small amount of oil can immediately and negatively impact a person who has diabetes “Am I a freak of nature?” That was the one question Khambatta had for his professors while in graduate school for nutritional biochemistry. He’d been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 22, put on insulin, and told to adhere to a low-carb diet. Over time, his blood glucose levels rose, he needed an increasing amount of insulin, and the symptoms of type 1 diabetes hadn’t subsided; he knew something wasn’t right with the prescribed treatment. After conducting his own research on his condition and trying to determine why the recommended treatment didn’t seem to be working, he came upon a nutrition professional who advised him to transition to a low-fat, plant-based, whole-foods diet. The result? After one week, Khambatta cut his insulin use by 40% while at the same time consuming six times the amount of carbs that the doctor recommended. Determined to figure out how this was possible—and whether other people with diabetes could benefit in the same way—Khambatta dove deeper into the research on diabetes and discovered a whole collection of papers that described precisely what he was experiencing. Since then, he and Barbaro (who had a very similar experience with type 1 diabetes) have taught thousands of people how to follow in their footsteps by transitioning to a low-fat, whole-foods, plant-based diet. Together, Khambatta and Barbaro have founded Mastering Diabetes, a program that aims to translate the true science of insulin resistance for the people who need it most. “This carbohydrate-insulin model that the diabetes world operates off of—that the more carbohydrates you eat the more insulin you need, and/or the more carbohydrates you eat the fatter you get and the harder your pancreas has to work—that whole story is convoluted and is correct only in very specific situations,” explains Khambatta. Tune in to hear the full conversation, and check out the book, Mastering Diabetes: The Revolutionary Method to Reverse Insulin Resistance Permanently in Type 1, Type 1.5, Type 2, Prediabetes, and Gestational Diabetes. Learn more at Available on Apple Podcasts:
Leigh Rothschild has been inventing and filing for new patents since his teenage years and now has at least 130 patents to his name, mostly technology patents, with about 200 more pending approval.  In this podcast he discusses his own entrepreneurship development and today's patent process. He discusses How to monetize patents as well as application logistics such as the difference between non provisional and provisional patents, Legislation over the past decade or so that has devalued the patent market and resulting challenges, and Practical ways to protect your patents and keep in mind beyond the importance of entrepreneurship.   In addition to putting his entrepreneurship skills to use through inventions like the technology at the center of Qmage, Inc., Leigh Rothschild also founded a firm called Patent Asset Management. He discusses his years as an inventor and the vast accumulation of patent knowledge he has accumulated in the meantime. He offers listeners solid information about the process of patent applications and how to make the most of your patents. For example, he explains the three ways he's been able to monetize patents: by selling patents to companies around the world, like Apple; by starting businesses that utilize his patents; and by looking for potential licensees for his current patents—in other words, finding people using and/or infringing on them—and getting them to license and pay for them. This last effort extended into him setting up an organization with lawyers and staff to monitor his patents and their uses and licenses and to advise others on making their entrepreneurship ideas a patented reality. He explains the logistics of patent filing for listeners as well as various legislation that has made it easier for others to target and challenge patents. He feels that the U.S. is in fact one of the most patent-unfriendly countries in the world due to legislation in the past few years as well as a Supreme Court case that allowed federal circuit courts to void patents if they think they were given unfairly. He describes ways to work with these challenges and how congress needs legislation to reframe these provisions in a more suitable way. For more, see his company's website at and email him at Available on Apple Podcasts:
Dr. Nick West, Chief Medical Officer and Divisional Vice President of Global Medical Affairs, Abbott Vascular at Abbot joins the show to discuss his research on coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). In this episode, you’ll discover: Where your heart receives its blood supply, and how the answer could lead to a potentially lethal underlying condition affecting almost half of those who suffer from angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart) In what way a temperature sensor plays a critical role in the diagnosis of microvasculature malfunction What could explain why many patients continue to suffer from chest pain even after the placement of a cardiac stent or cardiac bypass surgery About 90% of the heart’s blood supply is delivered by the coronary microvasculature, which is composed of tiny vessels 10 to 50 microns in diameter. This leaves just 10% of the blood supply to the three main, large arteries of the heart. Surprisingly, much of the focus in the field of research on coronary health and disease has revolved around the large arteries, and overlooked the importance of the heart’s microvasculature. The vessels that make up the coronary microvasculature are too small to be detected on coronary angiogram. Dr West explains how this could account for the fact that about 50% of the patients who end up in a cardiac catheter lab with a presumptive diagnosis of angina don’t walk away with a surgical recommendation. In other words, if the typical narrowing of the larger coronary vessels can’t be identified, then a patient will be told not to worry, and that a surgical procedure (such as a stent or bypass) isn’t necessary. In reality, it’s possible that many of these patients suffer from microvascular dysfunction. With the real problem flying under the radar, these patients are left with no way to get better. As a result, they suffer poor quality of life, present recurrently to ERs and specialists, undergo extensive testing to no avail, and are at higher risk of heart attack and death. Dr. West wants to know how microvascular dysfunction can be diagnosed, and whether a treatment can be developed. Essential to diagnosing it is a tool called a pressure wire, which is used to measure the pressure gradient across the coronary artery. There are several on the market, but none like the one Dr. West has helped develop; it has a temperature sensor, which allows for thermodilution tests to be performed. This test measures the time it takes for a room-temperature bolus of saline to reach the temperature sensor on the pressure wire from the top of the coronary artery. The tighter the microvascular circulation, the longer it will take for the bolus to reach the sensor. Tune in to hear Dr. West explain all of this and more. Find further information and read the white paper at Dr. West's blog: that announces the launch of  Coroventis. The full report and announcement of the recently launched "Beyond Intervention" global research. New Research Finds Physicians and Patients Point to Emerging Technology and Data as Central to Closing Treatment Gaps and Improving Vascular Health New research found physicians and patients agree that there are widening gaps in vascular disease treatment[ii] 55% of physicians from nine countries around the globe say the shortage of time to spend with each patient is the biggest challenge to improving the patient experience and delivering better outcomes 72% of patients want more personalized care More than 80% of physicians and more than 90% of hospital administrators agree that advances in diagnostic and treatment technologies have led to tangible improvements in patient care Available on Apple Podcasts:
Amy Waterman directs the Transplant Research and Education Center at UCLA. She works with patients navigating any disease of the kidney and helps educate them on corresponding choices, from dialysis treatment to getting on a transplant list. She discusses How the general process works as a patient enters their center, from considering treatment options to seeking a donor, What the statistics are in the donor-transplant relationship and the range of donor options, and How the physical process works for transplantation and what are risk factors compared to the dialysis process. In addition to directing the Transplant Center, Amy D. Waterman is a Professor in Residence at the University of California in Los Angeles in the division of nephrology. She's a psychologist with an expertise on managing patient behavior toward healthy goals. At the center, she works alongside nephrologists and other professionals to guide patents through choices and the complicated process of facing kidney disease. She researches and tests methods that might help educate and engage patients and evaluates how to work more effectively with providers. She describes for listeners the process a patient moves through, from typical questions they have to choices they can make, and for those that need a transplant, how to enter into searches for a donation from family members to strangers to someone who has passed away. She adds that there is a donor contingent called non-directed donors. These are strangers who step forward and offer a kidney as a living donor. In fact, over 6,000 living people donate a kidney each year. Dr. Waterman also describes the physical process of donation, what might be in the works for kidney disease cures, and how she became involved with this important work in the first place.  Find out more about her work at or Available on Apple Podcasts:
Comments (7)



Aug 31st

Austin Peek

Insightful episode. Learned a lot, thanks!

Jan 30th

Richard Jacobs

Thank you for all you do, Dinesh!

Jan 17th

Chris Hartigan

can you provide a link to the article he mentions in the interview please

Nov 5th

Jorge Luna

Theme music volume is too high. Host and guest volume too low. Difficult to listen while driving.

Jul 22nd
Reply (1)

Gonzalo Garcia Luna

This is teally interesting

Mar 7th
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