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Writer & Geek

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We are the leading independent documentary podcast in India. We talk History, Science, Technology and everything in between; well most of the things.
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Operation Overlord was launched on 6 June 1944 and is to date the largest amphibious assault in the history of warfare. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June, and more than two million Allied troops were in France by the end of August. It led to the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II. Links to our essentials: Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image MIckStephenson at English Wikipedia.
107: Pyramids

107: Pyramids

2021-05-0927:22

The Pyramids are one of the ancient wonders of the world. It is one of the most mysterious structures ever built. In this episode, we try to uncover some of the mysteries. Links to our essentials: Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image by Soupy Squirrel from Pixabay
The Indian Revolutionary Movement The first signs of the revolutionary movement can be traced back to 1847 when 5000 peasants rose against the British East India Company (EIC) in Kurnool district (Andra Pradesh) under the leadership of Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy. They were protesting against the changes made to the traditional agrarian system. Jugantar Party The revolutionary movement was not organised till the 20th Century. The first signs of its organisation can be noticed in 1905, during the partition of Bengal. The Jugantar party was formed in April 1906 by Aurobindo Ghosh, Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Bhupendranath Datta, Lal Bal Pal, Subodh Chandra Mullick. They collected and manufactured bombs. The Jugantars sent some of their members for training abroad, too. But the attempted murder of a district judge in Muzaffarpur resulted in the arrest of many of them. They planned to revolt against the British during the First World War with the help of Indians living abroad. It relied on the clandestine landing of German arms and ammunitions in the Indian coast, which never materialised. They supported Mahatma Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement while conducting revolutionary activities. Hindustan Socialist Republican Association It was established in October 1924 in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh by revolutionaries like Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad, Yogendra Shukla and Sachindranath Sanyal. They aimed to throw out the British and establish the Federal Republic of the United States of India. The Kakori train robbery is one of the notable mutinies by the group. It led to the hanging of Ashfaqullah Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Lahiri. The group reorganised under Chandrashekhar Azad with new members of the likes of Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Sukhdev and renamed themselves the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). They killed Saunders, a police officer involved in the lathi-charge that killed Lala Lajpat Rai. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru threw a bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly. It was followed by their trial and hanging on 23 March 1931. Abhinav Bharat Secret Society It was a secret society started by VD Savarkar and GD Savarkar in 1904. It was involved in many revolutionary activities until its disbandment in 1952. One of the popular deeds of the society was the assassination of Lt. Col. William Curzon-Wyllie on 1 July 1909. After the existence of the society was unearthed, Savarkar was transported to the Cellular Jail in the Andaman Islands in 1910. Kotwal Dasta It was formed by Veer Bhai Kotwal with around 50 members during the Quit India Movement. They cut down electric pylons to cripple the industries and railways. Around 11 pylons were cut from September to November 1942. Previous episode mentioned in this episode: 074: Oh beer, oh beer! Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image by Rueben lys
In this episode, we talk about the Boeing 737 Max accidents and the reason behind it. Boeing’s 737 is one of the most widely used aircraft. But two crashes of its new 737 Max 8 model and the following investigation, led to some dark details about how a software system overpowered the pilots and plunged everyone on board to a horrific end. Manoeuvring Characteristics Augmentation System, abbreviated as MCAS is a software designed to save an aeroplane from a potential stall due to a high angle of attack. The angle of attack is the angle between the aircraft direction of mention forward and the wing. Aircraft usually have a slight positive angle of attack to create more lift at slower speeds. But if the angle of attack becomes too high, added drag is created and there is a danger of a stall where aircraft falls out of the sky uncontrollably. MCAS was designed to lower the airplane’s nose when the angle of attack becomes too high and thus preventing a stall. But in two of Boeing’s 737 Max 8 aircraft, these systems erroneously pushed the planes into nosedive resulting in catastrophic accidents. The worst part of this disaster was that the pilots of 737 were not informed of this particular software and wasn’t even mentioned in any training documents. In this episode, we delve a little deeper into the background of these tragedies and learn how competition between two aircraft manufacturers resulted in the loss of hundreds of lives. Previous episode mentioned in the episode: 048: Jet Engines Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image by nickyhardinguk from Pixabay
Rodney Alcala is a notorious serial killer who spread terror in the United States from 1968 to 1979. Name: Rodrigo Jacques Alcala Buquor Birth: 23 August 1943 Convictions: Battery, kidnapping, murder, probation violation, rape, providing cannabis to a minor Victims: 8 to 130 Span: 1968 to 1979 Crime penalty: Death Aliases: The Dating Game Killer, John Berger, John Burger, Rod Alcala During his appearance in The Dating Game in 1978, the host, Jim Lange introduced him as a "successful photographer who got his start when his father found him in the darkroom at the age of 13, fully developed. Between takes, you might find him skydiving or motorcycling." Alcala won the competition (a date with Cheryl Bradshaw) with his charm. But Bradshaw later declined the date because Alcala started acting creepy. The fellow bachelors in the show described Alcala to be very strange and have bizarre opinions. It is believed that the rejection led Alcala on a killing spree where he killed at least three women. Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Source: Rodney Alcala Biography Rodney Alcala Murderpedia The Dating Game Wikipedia Rodney Alcala Wikipedia Image from LA Weekly
Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Until Gandhi was assassinated in 1948, his life and teachings inspired activists including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela. Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Born: 2 October 1869 (Porbandar, Gujarat) Known for: Being the father of the nation, political activism leading to Indian independence, nonviolence (ahimsa) Occupation: Lawyer, activist, writer, politician Died: 30 January 1948 Cause of death: Assassination through gunshot by Nathuram Godse Introduction He was the youngest son from his father, Karamchand Gandhi’s fourth marriage to Putlibai Gandhi. Karamchand Gandhi did not have much elementary education but was capable to be the dewan of Porbandar. He went on to become the dewan of Rajkot later on. Mohandas Gandhi was a mediocre student who won the occasional prizes and scholarships who was - “good at English, fair in Arithmetic and weak in Geography; conduct very good, bad handwriting.” He got married at the age of thirteen to Kasturba Makhanji Kapadia. They went on to have four children - Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, Devdas. Education He liked to be a doctor but coming from a background of Vaishnava faith, they were against vivisection. To attain a good post in the high posts in one of the states in Gujarat, he had to be a barrister. He went to England and joined the Inner Temple which is one of the four London law colleges. He struggled with more issues than academic problems, especially vegetarianism became a major struggle for him. He came under constant pressure from his friends about how vegetarianism is going to wreck his studies and health. But then he found a vegetarian restaurant and a book reasoning the goodness of vegetarianism. He became a member of the executive committee of the London Vegetarian Society, contributing articles to its journal and attending its conferences. Early Career He had a lot of issues practising law. His fear of public speaking took a toll on him as he could not get any prestigious barrister jobs back in India. This led to him moving to South Africa and taking a job there. South Africa taught him a lot about the disparities between the white and the coloured. India (1915-1947) Non-Cooperation Movement (1920) It began because of the Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Ended with the Chauri Chaura incident of 1922. It led to the arrest of Gandhi and many other prominent leaders. Civil Disobedience Movement(1930) Dandi March (12th March - 6th April 1930) Time Man of the Year 1930 Gandhi and 78 trusted volunteers marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi (384 km) in 25 days. Resulted in the Government of India Act 1935 which granted large measures of autonomy to the provinces of British India. Quit Indian Movement (1942) It was opposed by Hindu Mahasabha, All India Muslim League, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Communist Party of India, and the Princely States. Quotes mentioned in the podcasts from Britannica: “Gandhi had critics in his own country and indeed in his own party. The liberal leaders protested that he was going too fast; the young radicals complained that he was not going fast enough; left-wing politicians alleged that he was not serious about evicting the British or liquidating such vested Indian interests as princes and landlords; the leaders of the untouchables doubted his good faith as a social reformer; and Muslim leaders accused him of partiality to his own community.” “Scholars have continued to judge Gandhi’s place in history. He was the catalyst if not the initiator of three of the major revolutions of the 20th century: the movements against colonialism, racism, and violence.” Book mentioned in the episode: The Story of My Experiments with Truth by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Paperback | Hardcover | Kindle Edition | MP3 CD | Audio Cassette Fin
Dear Listeners, We are taking a month long break to come back with some more amazing content for you. Till then we will be recasting four of our favourite episodes from the past. Hope you enjoy it! :) This week, we recast the episode where we talked about Dyatlov Pass Incident. To the east of the Ural mountains, in Yekaterinburg city cemetery, there is a group grave of 9 members from a hiking group who died mysteriously. Timeline Arrived by train at Ivdel a town at the centre of the northern province of Sverdlovsk Oblast on 25th January 1959. Took a truck ride to Vizhai (last settlement towards the north). Hikers purchased and had loaves of bread when they were in Vizhai to keep energy high. Started trek towards Otorten from Vizhai on 27th January. Yuri Yudin returned on 28th due to health issues. On 31st, the hikers arrived at a highland area and started preparing for their climb. They saved surplus food in a wooded area for their return hike. Snowstorms resulted in hikers being deviated from their intended path and ended up on the slopes of Kholat Syakhl (Dead Mountain). Group decided to camp on the slopes of Kholat Syakhl instead of hiking all the way back into the wooded area about 1.5 km away. It is speculated that the group wanted to practice camping on a mountain slope. Dyatlov had told his sports club that he would send a telegram from Vizhai no later than 12th February and that it might take even longer. It was not until 20th that the relatives of the hikers demanded a search be conducted for the missing hikers. The search party was mobilised and the military also took part in the search. On 26th of February, the search party found the tent that was used by the hikers. The tent was torn from inside and the hikers were missing. All the belongings including warm clothing and shoes were left behind. A set of footprints could be found heading away from the tent towards the woods, but after 500m, the tracks disappeared in the snow. At the edge of the forest, under a Siberian Pine tree, there was a visible sign of a fire that was lit. The first two bodies, Krivonischenko and Doroshenko were found shoeless near the fire site wearing only their underwears. The tree also had visible marks of someone having climbed it, with branches up to 5 metres broken. Someone seems to have climbed the tree to either escape from something or to look at something in distance. Further search in the snow between the camp and the pine tree revealed the bodies of Dyatlov, Kolmogorova and Slobodin. Their poses suggested that they were trying to return to the campsite perhaps for food and warm clothing. They were found at a distance of 300, 480 and 630 metres from the tree respectively. The four remaining hikers were not found until 4th of May under 4 metres of snow around 75 metres away from the pine tree towards the woods. These four happened to be better dressed than others and the ones who died later were wearing the clothes of the ones who had died earlier. A hastily constructed den was found near the bodies. Something happened on the night of 31st - 1st which lead to the death of all the hikers. Inquiry An inquiry was started into the matter after the first five bodies were found. It was concluded that hypothermia was the reason for the deaths. The finding of the four bodies later presented puzzling details which changed the course of the inquest. Three of the four hikers had serious fatal injuries to the head and chest area. Doctors concluded that the force required to cause a similar injury would be something similar to that of a car hitting a person. Except for Dubinina who was missing her tongue, eyes, parts of lips and a part of the skull, no major external wounds were found on the bodies. It was later claimed that these injuries were a result of her being face down on the water. Theories The inquest concluded that all the hikers had died of a compelling natural force. The inquiry was stopped in May and all
Dear Listeners, We are taking a month long break to come back with some more amazing content for you. Till then we will be recasting four of our favourite episodes from the past. Hope you enjoy it! :) This week, we recast the episode where we talked about time measurement in Hindu culture. Resources: Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here.
Dear Listeners, We are taking a month long break to come back with some more amazing content for you. Till then we will be recasting four of our favourite episodes from the past. Hope you enjoy it! :) This week, we recast our conversation about the history of smoking. History The origin of tobacco can be traced back to 6000 BC, in the American continent. It was considered medicinal and used as a painkiller. Smoking cannabis can be traced back to 2000 BC, India. It is also mentioned in Atharvaveda. Cannabis smoking in the middle east was common, especially Hookah. Even women took part in it privately. Christopher Columbus played a big part in getting it to the European continent 1531 - first tobacco cultivation in Europe. By 1600, tobacco became an integral part of the society as a good section started smoking. In 1560, Jean Nicot took tobacco with him to Spain from France In 1571, a Spanish doctor named Nicolas Monardes, apparently “found out” tobacco could cure 36 health problems (what a joke!) In 1588, Thomas Harriet, a Virginian, said that smoking gives the daily dose of tobacco. Not surprisingly, he died of nose cancer. English King James I was one of the first to speak against smoking Tobacco used as an exchange during these time. The barter system did rely on tobacco. Africa was introduced to tobacco by Arab traders in the 13th century, It was popularised by French merchants in 1600 by bringing tobacco to Senegal & Gambia. The 17th century saw Japanese use a device called Kiseru. It was a long-stemmed device. In 1760, Pierre Lorillard set up the Lorillard Tobacco Company in NYC. it is the oldest tobacco company in the US. Nicotine was discovered in 1826 and found to be harmful to humans. 1836, Samuel Green mentioned that tobacco is an insecticide, a poison which can kill. Chinese got into the habit of smoking opium due to colonialism. The British got them addicted to opium and it resulted in the Opium Wars. Chewing tobacco became popular amongst cowboys in the 19th century. It was more popular than smoking. By 1901, smoking was catching up with 6 billion cigars and 3 billion cigarettes sold. In 1902, Britisher, Philip Morris set up Marlboro brand 1913, R. J. Reynolds set up the Camel brand of cigarettes. World Wars saw a tremendous increase in smoking. It was called soldier’s smoke and was included in the soldier’s ration. By 1923, Camel took over 45% of the market in the US. Which led to Marlboro marketing it as women’s cigarette in 1924. They called it Mild as May. The number of women smokers tripled over the next few years. Nazi Germany has one of the most powerful anti-smoking movement. During the 1950s evidence of smoking leading to lung cancer began popping up. In 1952, Kent Brand developed Micronite, a cigarette which contains asbestos. It was shelved shortly afterwards. In 1953, Dr Ernst L. Wynders found that cigarette tar causes a tumour in mice In 1956, first menthol cigarette was released by RJ Reynolds called Salem. In 1964, regulations in cigarette advertisements were placed after the finding on Smoking and Health report made it clear that smoking causes lung cancer. In 1965, Britain takes cigarette commercials off television In 1966, health warnings started popping up on packets In 1968, Bravo, a non-tobacco cigarette brand made of lettuce. Mega Failure! The US takes off cigarette advertisements in 1971 the first national Great American Smokeout takes place in 1977. It is an annual event which takes place on the third Thursday of every November. In 1982, it is found out that second-hand smoking also leads to lung cancer In 1985, lung cancer overtakes breast cancer as the number one cause of women’s death. India and Smoking The first act to add a statutory warning on packets came into existence in 1975 Public smoking banned in Kerala in 1999. The first state in India to do that. On September 8, 2000, the complete ban on tobacco and smoking advertisements came into
Dear Listeners, We are taking a month long break to come back with some more amazing content for you. Till then we will be recasting four of our favourite episodes from the past. Hope you enjoy it! :) This week, we recall our conversation about Cyanide Mohan. A serial killer from South India. Mohan Kumar, infamously known as Cyanide Mohan is a serial killer who targeted women by offering them marriage. Details: DOB: 1963 Place: Mangalore Marital status: Married thrice Span of crime: 2005-2009 Number of victims: 20 Date of apprehension: October 2009 Crime History Cyanide Mohan worked as a primary school teacher from 1980 to 2003. He was fired from his job for allegedly pushing a woman off the Nethravathi when she refused his marriage proposal. The motive of the murders were to satisfy his sexual needs and to extort the valuables from his victims. He used cyanide laced pills to kill his victims. Convicted for 5 murders of the 20 murders. He is his own attorney and successful appealed to convert one death penalty into a life sentence. He is also found to have committed bank frauds and forgeries Currently serving two death penalties and two life sentences. Resources: Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here.
Dear Listeners, We are taking a month long break to come back with some more amazing content for you. Till then we will be recasting four of our favourite episodes from the past. Hope you enjoy it! :) This week, we recast the episode we did with our dear friend, Nikesh Murali. He is a writer and voice actor and also hosts the critically acclaimed horror podcast, Indian Noir. Find Nikesh online: Indian Noir Nikesh’s website Resources: Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here.
Note: This is not a sponsored episode. But do go check Headphone Zone if you are looking for premium quality audiophile equipment which are not available anywhere else in India. Watch the episode on YouTube. We have always been hardcore music enthusiasts since our childhood. We have had exposure to a variety of music styles, and it has influenced our daily lives a lot. But over the past few months, we realised we have not been listening to music the way it is supposed to. And in this episode, we talk about stuff related to audiophiles and our journey from being complete rookies to beginner audiophiles. We also talk about some of the equipment that we use. "An audiophile is a person who is enthusiastic about high-fidelity sound reproduction." - Wikipedia DAC A digital-to-analogue converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analogue signal. Most of the listening devices that we use, such as laptops and smartphones have inbuilt DAC in them. But being multipurpose devices, it is equipped with sub-par DACs. So, to get the best quality from the audio, a dedicated external DAC is required. Headphone Amplifier A headphone amplifier is a low-powered audio amplifier designed to drive headphones worn on or in the ears. It helps increase the threshold of the maximum volume achievable on a headphone. DAC vs Headphone Amplifier A DAC help in the seamless conversion of digital signals to analogue. On the other hand, a headphone amplifier only helps to increase the maximum volume of a headphone. A DAC removes the white noise from the headphone. But a headphone amplifier does not help with that as it still uses the listening device's inbuilt DAC. Closed-Back Headphones Closed-back headphones have a solid outer shell with no perforations of any sort such that the shell effectively cups the entire ear. This results in noise cancellation, reduction in sound bleeding but a reduced sound staging. These are mostly used by studio professionals while recording. Open-Back Headphones Open-back headphones are designed so that the outer shell of the ear covering is perforated in some fashion, typically with horizontal cutouts. Thus, resulting in sound bleeding but providing a better sound stage. These are mostly used by studio professionals while mixing and mastering. True Wireless Earbuds True Wireless Earbuds are earphones that are completely wireless and does not even have wires connecting the two buds. It is a revolutionary piece of technology that came along with Apple removing the headphone jacks from their headphones. The technology is still at its infancy but has grown tremendously since its inception in late 2016. Sound Signatures Extra Bass - It is in the name. These headphones have their bass boosted while the mids and highs suppressed. Most of the JBL and V-Moda headphones follow this sound signature. Suits for DJs. Warm and Smooth - Here, the bass is emphasised with the high trebles cut to remove the harshness of the audio. Sennheiser is known for creating some great warm and smooth sounding headphones. V-Shaped - It emphasizes bass and treble while cutting down on the mid-ranges. Apple's Airpod Pro is the best example of such earphones. Flat - As the name suggests, these headphones do not emphasis on any frequencies. These are well-suited for studio professionals as it provides what is there in the audio. Balanced - Balanced is similar to the flat signature but has all the frequencies tweaked a bit to give you a fun sound. The Jabra Elite 75t is an example of balanced sounding earbuds. Bright - They have boosted treble and mid-ranges. These depend on the quality of the audio you listen to because if the audio quality is low, it can get quite jarring and uncomfortable. But at the same time, it exposes the imperfections in well-recorded audio. Find all the products mentioned in the podcast below: Headphone Zone DAC - ifi Audio Zen Closed-back headphones - Audio Technica ATH
Kunchan Nambiar was an early Malayalam poet, performer, satirist and the inventor of the Kerala art form of Ottamthullal. Kunjan Nambiar was born in Kerala on May 5 1705, in Palakkad, Kerala. Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan and Cherusseri Namboothiri and Nambiar are known as the ancient triumvirate. Nambiar learnt Kalaripayattu and Sanskrit before moving to the court of Marthanda Varma in 1748. He had established himself as a poet by the time he reached the royal court. He introduced Ottamthullal to the masses in the 18th century. The motivation behind creating Ottamthullal is that Nambiar was made fun of by the Chakyar for sleeping while playing Mizhavu during a Chakyar Koothu performance. He created Ottamthullal to parody prevalent regional prejudices and sociopolitical conditions. Ottamthullal is a dance and poetic performance. It is usually accompanied by a Mridangam or an Idakka. The performances take popular folktales from the past and satirise it with a lot of comedy. He parodied everyone in attendance and didn’t spare even the rich (Which was a big deal back then). The Chakyar complained to the King about Nambiar’s performances and Ottamthullal was banned in some of the temple complexes. The performer is draped in colourful clothes and green makeup.  Some of the performances similar to Ottamthullal are Parayanthullal and Seethankan Thullal. Nambiar had written 64 works for the art form. One of the most popular works of Ottamthullal is Kalyana Sougandhikam. The main feature of the art was that it was conducted in Malayalam which most of the commoners could understand. Back then, most of the performances included stylised or Sanskritised Malayalam which was not accessible to the common folks. What we can understand is that art was used to spread a social message even back then. Nambiar died of rabies in 1770. May 5 is celebrated as Kunchan Day in Kerala. Links to things Mentioned: Our episode on vaccination: 090: How Does Vaccination Work? Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Sources: Curating Kunchan Nambiar for the masses Kunjan Nambiar Wikipedia Story of the birth of Kunjan Nambiar Ottan Thullal Wikipedia That Inexplicable Tenth Rasa From An Actor-Dancer Who Collapsed And Died On Stage Image by Bobinson K B from Flickr | Source: Oh, my brother is coming!
100: Numbers

100: Numbers

2020-10-2035:40

Correction - Shankar incorrectly mentions that Thomas Edison published the Theory of Relativity as opposed to Albert Einstein. Either he had a momentary lapse of reasoning or he is a complete idiot. You decide! In the 100th episode of Writer and Geek Show, the lads discuss the origins of the numerical system and how Vishnu was poor in maths. Tally marks were used as early ways of counting. Roman numerals were an extension of primitive tally marks with the usage of alphabets as numerals. A positional system with place value attached to digits was invented in India between 1st and 4th century AD. Aryabhatta approximated the value of Pi during the early medieval period. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi popularized the Hindu numerals in the Arabian and Western world through his mathematical work. Fibonacci used these Hindu Arabic numerals for his work and thus popularized it in Europe. They came to be known as the Hindu Arabic system or as Arabic numerals. In the 15th century, Hindu Arabic numerals replaced Roman numerals as the primary number system. Wikipedia articles: Number System Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay
After the Rebellion of 1857, nationalist movements cropped up across the country. The idea of a free India became prevalent during this time. Indian National Congress (INC) Inspired by AO Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji and Surendranath Banerjee founded INC in 1885 It was the first time an organisation recognised India as a country The organisation initially did not have a well-formed ideology and was a debating society that met annually The idea was to let Britishers rule India while obtaining some kind of rights for the Indian citizens But it did not last long and the party was divided into two factions - Moderates and Extremists Moderates and Extremists Moderates were led by Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale who opposed the extremists led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai. The extremists were forced out of INC and the Tilak was later arrested, which led to INC losing its credibility. Aligarh University and the Muslim League In 1875, under Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh was founded (renamed Aligarh Muslim University in 1920) Bengal was divided into two in 1906 - East Bengal and West Bengal The Muslim faction in the country did not feel INC is inclusive and they formed The Muslim League The Revolutionaries Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in 1919 was a turning point in the revolutionary movement The work of the revolutionaries including Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki gained recognition Both of them tried to assassinate British officials and were captured and executed Jugantar was established in April 1906 by Aurobindo Ghosh, his brother Barin Ghosh, Bhupendranath Datta, Raja Subodh Mallik. They collected and manufactured arms and explosives for revolutionary activities. Ghadar Party and its movement to conduct a Pan-India rebellion in the British Indian Army. All India Conference of Indian Christians was founded in 1914 with KT Paul as its first president Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Source: Indian National Congress Wikipedia Indian Independence Movement Wikipedia Timeline of Indian History from 1857 to 1947 10 Events That Led to Indian Independence Image courtesy Canva
Welcome to the third part of Writer & Geek Unscripted. In this episode, we talk about our idea about life and death. Watch this episode on Youtube. We touch upon our personal experiences of dealing with the death of near and dear ones and also how we rely on the principles of optimistic nihilism and stoicism to get through tough situations. Find the video about Optimistic Nihilism mentioned in the episode here: Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell - Optimistic Nihilism Find more about Stoicism here: The philosophy of Stoicism - Massimo Pigliucci Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image by Oli Lynch from Pixabay
097: Telephones

097: Telephones

2020-09-2933:25

Phones have progressed from just being an appliance to connect via voice to becoming an all in one device that keeps you connected with the world at all times. Alexander Graham Bell is credited with inventing the phone back in 1876. In the same year, the first two-way long-distance communication via phone was conducted. First telephone exchange in India was set up in 1882. Telephones were improved during the early 20th century Early car phones appeared in 1946 in the United States In 1947, Bell labs proposed a cellular network Motorola built the first truly wireless phone in 1973. The public started using wireless phones in the 80s First mobile phone communication happened in India on July 31st, 1995. Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here. Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image by Stefan Kuhn from Pixabay
INS Viraat was India’s flagship aircraft carrier before INS Vikramaditya was commissioned in 2013. It was completed and commissioned in 1959 by the British Royal Navy (as HMS Hermes) and was the last of Centaur-class aircraft carriers. It served the Royal Navy for 25 years before being sold to the Indian Navy in 1987. The carrier was decommissioned in 2017 and is currently on its way to be scrapped at the port of Alang, Gujarat. Largest Aircraft Carrier USS Gerald R Ford Length: 337 metres Displacement: 100,000 tons Speed: In excess of 30 knots (56 km/h) Range: Unlimited (20-25 years) Cost: $12.8 billion + $4.7 billion R&D Smallest Aircraft Carrier HTMS Chakri Naruebet Length: 182.65 metres Displacement: 11,486 tons Speed: 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h) Range: 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 kilometres) Cost: $285 million in 1993 History of Aircraft Carriers In 1806, the Royal Navy used a ship to launch kites with propaganda leaflets. These leaflets with propaganda against Napoleon in French were dropped in France. Ballon Carriers On 12 July 1849, Austrian ship SMS Vulcano tried to drop incendiary balloons in Venice. But the wind blew most of the balloon incendiary back to the city. Gas-filled balloons were used during the American Civil war for the reconnaissance of Confederate positions. Ballon carriers were used during World War I by the navies of Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Sweden mostly as observation posts. Their ships were mostly decommissioned or turned into seaplane carriers. Seaplane Carriers In 1910, seaplanes were invented. These led to the development of ships which could carry these seaplanes. It was the first form of aircraft carriers. The first seaplane carrier, Foudre, was developed by the French in December 1911. A 10-metre flat deck was developed in 1913 for launching the seaplanes. HMS Hermes was temporarily converted to a seaplane carrier by the Royal Navy in April-May 1913, making it the first British seaplane carrier. The first seaplane carrier of the US was USS Mississippi, which was converted in December 1913. The first naval launched air raids that happened in 1914 during World War I. The Imperial Japanese Navy seaplane Wakamiya lowered four Maurice Farman seaplanes using a crane, which went on to bombard German forces. The naval raid on the Zeppelin base at Cuxhaven on 25 December 1914 demonstrated the ability of seaborne air raids to the Europeans. Many ships used catapults to launch seaplanes for reconnaissance and later retrieve it using cranes. This method was popular even during World War II. Flat-Deck Carriers The first successful launch of a plane from a stationary ship took place in November 1910. The pilot was Eugene Ely. A structure was fixed over the armoured cruiser USS Birmingham. The first landing took place on 18 January 1911 on the structure fixed on USS Pennsylvania. It used an improvised braking system of sandbags and ropes. On 9 May 1912, Commander Charles Rumney Samson became the first pilot to take off from a moving plane. He took off from the battleship HMS Hibernia. World War I HMS Ark Royal was the first aircraft carrier. It was launched on 5 September 1914. It was part of the Gallipoli campaign. It was a merchant ship modified to be a carrier. The first ship to be designed as an aircraft carrier was HMS Furious in 1916. At first, it had separate flight decks but was rebuilt in 1925 with a full-length flight deck. It took part in combat during World War II. Squadron Commander EH Dunning landed his plane on a moving HMS Furious on 2 August 1917, becoming the first person to land on a moving ship. But he tragically died five days later while trying to land another plane on the same carrier. The first-ever carrier-launched airstrike took place on 19 July 1918 during the Tondern Raid. Seven planes were launched from HMS Furious with two 23-kilogram bombs to attack the German Zeppelin base in Tondern. As the carrier had no recovery system
095: The Internet

095: The Internet

2020-09-1533:55

Correction - Vishnu incorrectly mentions that Tor stands for ‘Tor Onion Router’ and that it is a recursive acronym. He’s an idiot As Shankar mentioned, it actually stands for ‘The Onion Router’. The early form of the Internet was invented by the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) in the form of ARPANET, which was a group of computers connected together and sharing resources. In 1990, Sir Tim Berners-Lee developed the first website with an address info.cern.ch and was available within the CERN network. This site is accessible at http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html IP addresses help identify a computer on the network and Domain Name Service (DNS) helps assign meaningful web addresses (like writerandgeek.com) that direct to these IP addresses. This makes remembering websites easy. Integrated Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a non-profit controlling the DNS. Trans-oceanic cables help provide internet to every continent except in the world except Antarctica. Any damages to these cables can result in disruption of the internet over a wide area or a country. Deepweb is the part of the internet which is not indexed by search engines and websites in the deep web cannot be viewed by normal browsers. Browsers like TOR browser are used to access these websites. A subset of the deep web is called Darknet where usually activities that are illegal take place. Like drug trade, etc. Find the affiliate links to the equipment and resources we use to make this podcast here.Find Writer & Geek's guide to podcasting here. Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay
The Revolt of 1857 is also known by other names such as The Sepoy Mutiny, The Indian Mutiny, The Great Rebellion, The Indian Insurrection, India’s First War of Independence. Political Causes: Doctrine of Lapse Cancelling of Nana Sahib’s pension (Bajirao II) Not letting Rani Lakshmi Bhai rule Jhansi Abolish the Mughal Emperor title after the death of Bahadur Shah II Economical Causes: India was turned into a colonial economy to serve the British capitalist interests High taxes, eviction of people, discriminatory practices, and destruction of traditional handicrafts Social and Religious Causes: Sati, infanticide, re-marriage of widows were considered to be interference by the Indians The work of the Christian missionaries and the introduction of English education The change of the Hindu law of property to accommodate conversion to Christianity Military Causes: The Indian soldiers were considered inferior The high ranks in the army were exclusively reserved for English men Sending Indian soldiers overseas Immediate Cause: The introduction of the Enfield rifle and the greased cartridge Timeline: On 29th March 1857, a sepoy called Mangal Pandey killed his superior English officers during a parade in Barrackpore, Bengal. It spread to Berhampore on 24th April 1857 where the cavalrymen refused to accept the greased cartridges. On 10th May 1857, Mutineers killed their superiors in Meerut and started marching towards Delhi. On 12th May, Bahadur Shah was proclaimed the Emperor of India. He was 81. But the real command was in the hands of Bakht Khan who led the troops in Bareilly and moved them to Delhi. Nana Sahib led the troops in Kanpur. He proclaimed himself to be the Peshwa and governor of the region. It was Tantya Tope who did most of the fighting there. Hazrat Mahal, the Begum of Awadh led the revolt in Lucknow. She proclaimed her song Birjis Qadr as the Nawab of Awadh. It is in Lucknow where Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence (the British resident) was killed. Rani Laxmi Bai was defeated in Jhansi, but she captured Gwalior with the help of Tantya Tope. In Bareilly, Khan Bahadur Khan Rohilla led the revolt and proclaimed himself as the Nawab. Banaras, Allahabad, Nasirabad, Indore, Aligarh and Kota where the other centres of the battle were the mutineers killed their superiors, not even sparing women or children, burned the land records, plundered the treasury. Bahadur Shah II proved to be a weak leader and the Britishers were able to suppress the revolt soon enough. He was arrested and deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862. They recaptured Delhi on 20th September 1857 under the leadership of John Nicholson. General Havelock defeated the rebels in Kanpur. After his defeat, Nana Sahib refused to surrender and escaped to Nepal. Hugh Henry Rose suppressed the revolt in Jhansi and Rani Laxmi Bai died on the battlefield. Banaras, Bareilly, and Gwalior were recaptured by the Britishers. Why did the revolt fail? It was a highly localised revolt mainly restricted to North India. It was poorly organised and the leaders lacked coordination. Scindia of Gwalior, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Holkar of Indore, the Nawab of Bhopal, the Raja of Jodhpur, the Rulers of Kashmir, Patiala, and Sindh, and the Rana of Nepal actively support the British during the revolt. The British had way better and advanced resources and also proven generals leading their troops. There was no common cause for the rebels, they had different goals. Impact of the Revolt: The Queen’s Proclamation of November 1858 announced the policy of the British Government to be followed in India. It abolished territorial extension, the native rulers were assured of their title, land and rights, and honour if they cooperated with the British. The ruler's right to adopt a child in the case of the absence of a natural heir was accepted. The policy of divide and rule was actively pursued to keep the Hindus and Muslims separated leading to the gro
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Comments (29)

Sarath Pavithran

A very informative podcast for those who is noobie at listening podcasts

Apr 27th
Reply

Venksh

Shankar and Vishnu congrats on ur milestone episode.. well researched and very informative .. many may know the mathematical formula but not the history behind it.. thank you for letting know so much in-depth details.. good luck to achieve more milestone episodes..

Oct 22nd
Reply (1)

Venksh

the best ever personal finance explanation that you could get.. also gives you insight of how to save and invest it rather spend it at first..

Sep 26th
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Venksh

very well researched and recorded episode on aircraft Carriers .. Bike made out of INS Vikrant is Bajaj V15. best part is giving reference of TaleSpin for sea plane, I guess only 90 kids would get it. @Vishnu: Vikrant means Powerful.

Sep 22nd
Reply (1)

Venksh

@Vishnu agree with that Snowpiercer isn't that great series, but give it try bcos later episodes are bit good. I think there will be season 2 of Snowpiercer and as u said the story is almost similar to the movie Snowpiercer..

Sep 20th
Reply (1)

Venksh

Thank you Vishnu and Shankar for the Shout-out. means a lot to me.. Thanks, Venkatesh

Sep 20th
Reply

Venksh

History of Internet.. Very informative..

Sep 19th
Reply (1)

Venksh

thank you Shankar n Vishnu for this episode.. am from Karaikal. could relate all the things you guys discussed.. Yes French govt still gives pension to some ppl, those are French citizens living in India. My grandma also was getting pension as she was French citizen.. half of my family holds French citizenship, bcos they were born during French ruling period. Also the govt increased price of liquor n petrol during this lockdown period. Big thanks to Writer And Geek show. #WriterAndGeekShow

Aug 30th
Reply (1)

Venksh

History of Marriage..

Jun 21st
Reply

Venksh

very informative about Malayalam film industry..

May 31st
Reply (1)

Vachana Hr

brilliant 👌👌👌

Apr 23rd
Reply

Riya Chauhan

That Domino's chocolate pizza tasts horrible. don't try it.

Jun 19th
Reply (1)

Sangram keshari Sahu

It's been a long time. But it's always good to hear you guys.

Mar 10th
Reply (1)

Bhaskar N H

The serial killers who operated in TN, Bangalore didn't manage to scale up their operations like the Bombay underworld. Or did they ? And somehow that didn't get noticed much or they were not documented properly? So, I am glad that you managed to do a bit of research on gems like Auto Shankar. The other day I was reading an article on the underworld that operated out of Bangalore in the 70s and 80s but sadly not many are aware of these. There aren't many documents or press articles on them..

Dec 30th
Reply (1)

Arjun Singh

👏👏👏👏

Nov 13th
Reply (1)

Usman T

Good work

Oct 21st
Reply (1)

Saurabh Dani

It's cody's lab

Oct 15th
Reply (1)
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