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Author: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

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The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a unique global network of policy research centers in Russia, China, Europe, the Middle East, India, and the United States. Our mission, dating back more than a century, is to advance the cause of peace through analysis and development of fresh policy ideas and direct engagement and collaboration with decisionmakers in government, business, and civil society.
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Carnegie's Tong Zhao, Fellow based at the Carnegie–Tsinghua Center for Global Policy, discusses the growth of China's nuclear ballistic missile submarine program and its implications for US-China strategic stability.
Drawing on the history of conflict between India and Pakistan, in his new book Brokering Peace in Nuclear Environments, Moeed Yusuf describes and evaluates how the process of third-party intervention affects deterrence strategies and prospects for peace, and applies lessons to other regional nuclear rivalries
Preventing Escalation in the Baltics: A NATO Playbook by Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
In his new book, "Navigation by Judgment: Why and When Top-Down Control of Foreign Aid Doesn’t Work," Dan Honig presents an empirically grounded argument for the value of implementation led by the judgment of field staff, particularly when tasks are difficult to measure and country environments are unpredictable. In this roundtable discussion, Honig will present his key findings and their implications for major aid organizations. Nilmini Rubin and Larry Garber, experienced development practitioners, will respond with comments and reflections.
Why did the United States move from a position of nuclear superiority over the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1960s to one of nuclear parity under conditions of mutual assured destruction in 1972? The story of this transition both sheds new light on the Cold War and offers new insights for today’s nuclear challenges.Drawing on declassified conversations between three presidents and their most trusted advisers, James Cameron offers an original answer to this question in his new book The Double Game: The Demise of America’s First Missile Defense System and the Rise of Strategic Arms Limitation. John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Richard Nixon struggled to reconcile their personal convictions about the nuclear arms race with public demands. In doing so they engaged in a double game, hiding their true beliefs behind a façade of strategic language, while grappling in private with the complex realities of the nuclear age.
One year after U.S. President Donald Trump’s election, Europe is still struggling to make sense of his administration’s disruptive foreign policy. What impact has Trump had on the transatlantic relationship thus far, and what lies ahead? Where and how can Europe engage with the United States going forward? Experts convened at Carnegie on November 28, 2017 for a conversation.
The risk of a nuclear war is rising because of growing non-nuclear threats to nuclear weapons and their command-and-control systems. In a conventional war, such “entanglement” could lead to non-nuclear operations inadvertently threatening the opponent’s nuclear deterrent or being misinterpreted as preparations for nuclear use, potentially sparking catastrophic escalation. Alexey Arbatov, who co-authored a new Carnegie volume, Entanglement: Chinese and Russian Perspectives on Non-nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Risks, gives a Russian view of this problem and presents potential policy options in conversation with James Acton.
Non-nuclear Weapons and the Risk of Nuclear War: A Chinese Perspective by Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Access to justice is a key governance concern in developed and developing countries alike. Community legal workers aim to help poor or comparatively powerless people defend themselves against land grabs, obtain public services, and challenge corruption. Can this bottom-up approach counter powerful interests seeking to entrench their control? Can legal empowerment help respond to rising authoritarianism and repression of civil society?
While wars, terrorism , and rapidly changing economic conditions in the Middle East grab headlines, the close links between these issues and governance are increasingly relegated to back pages. Carnegie’s Middle East program and Stanford University’s Center for Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law hosted an in-depth discussion with experts from the region and leading American scholars about these issues, including lessons learned from other regions and implications for U.S. policies.
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