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Cognitive Engineering

Author: Aleph Insights

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Welcome to the Cognitive Engineering podcast. Occasionally coherent musings of Aleph Insights. We hope you like listening to them as much as we like recording them.
265 Episodes
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First-mover Advantage

First-mover Advantage

2021-09-1536:51

Does being the first to market give you a competitive edge? Is first-mover advantage still the harbinger of success that economic theory suggests? When does being the first mean you might end up finishing last? In this week’s podcast we discuss first-mover advantage. Now that Amazon have suspended their drone delivery service, will it be easier for others to succeed? We present some of the most significant inventions in recent history and assess how pivotal first-mover advantage was to their success. We evaluate the economic principles of first-mover advantage and Peter unleashes another of his eponymous typologies with the “Coghill Taxonomy of Failure”. Finally, we ask which market is ripe for disruption and Nick announces a novel plan for his own market raid. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Amazon's Drone Deliveries in Doubt https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2021/08/03/amazons-drone-deliveries-doubt-cambridge-cutbacks/ - The Slow Collapse of Amazon’s Drone Delivery Dream https://www.wired.co.uk/article/amazon-drone-delivery-prime-air - The Half-Truth of First-Mover Advantage https://hbr.org/2005/04/the-half-truth-of-first-mover-advantage - For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com
Ballardian Spaces

Ballardian Spaces

2021-09-0833:48

Why is it that public spaces, like petrol stations, shopping malls and airports, are depressing and boring? These spaces are extremely useful and functional, but why do they seem to lack any real architectural flair or soul? This podcast discusses the trade-off between the utility of a building and aesthetics. We examine what factors should influence the design of a building (e.g cost of maintenance, experience of the occupants, etc.) and whether it is possible to strike a balance between architectural style, functionality and cost. Peter also explains the eponymous 'Coghill Hierarchy of Architecture' and we provide examples of buildings that we believe are well-designed and others that should have been left on the technical drawing board. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - A History of the Elephant & Castle https://blackcablondon.wordpress.com/2012/10/23/a-history-of-the-elephant-castle-part-one/?preview_id=4256&preview_nonce=1167df0030&preview=true - The Real Concrete Island? https://web.archive.org/web/20201108113646/https://www.ballardian.com/the-real-concrete-island - Reddit: Liminal Space https://www.reddit.com/r/LiminalSpace/ For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Gerald England via Creative Commons
Some fashions come and go quickly, but others move in slower cycles (e.g. the bowler hat). What drives the rate at which given fashions shift, and most importantly, what does this mean for the future of facial hair? In this podcast, we delve into enduring fashions and try to understand how their cultural context, evolving meaning and basic function might contribute to their longevity. We examine the history of bowler hats, vests and beards to see whether they tell us anything important about elongated fashion life-cycles. Finally, we make our own predictions about the fashion trends of the future. Anna Wintour take note. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Every England World Cup Squad Ever: A complete run down https://www.thatsagoal.com/world-cup-2018-predictions-betting-tips/world-cup-2018-group-g/every-england-world-cup-squad-ever-a-complete-run-down - The Rise and Fall—and Rise—of Facial Hair https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/01/the-rise-and-fall-and-rise-of-facial-hair/282951/ - Facial Hair Throughout the Ages https://www.halcyonmaps.com/facial-hair-throughout-history - Scott Alexander’s ‘barber pole’ model of fashion https://slatestarcodex.com/2014/04/22/right-is-the-new-left/ - Who Killed Men's Hats? https://www.npr.org/sections/krulwich/2012/05/04/152011840/who-killed-mens-hats-think-of-a-three-letter-word-beginning-with-i?t=1630044230251 For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com
As the UK continues its withdrawal from Afghanistan and the covid-19 pandemic lingers on, this week we revisit a podcast from March about the effectiveness of governments. ------------ The Covid pandemic has seen a sharp rise in government spending, and large scale testing and vaccination programmes. Some of these have been successful, while others less so. We look at whether, on balance, governments are an effective mechanism for achieving desirable outcomes. In this podcast, we explore the rationale for having governments in the first place and consider what activities it is appropriate for them to carry out. We look at what happens when the government gets it wrong and also examine what various data sources say about the relative effectiveness of the private and public sectors. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Chicago School of Economics www.investopedia.com/terms/c/chicago_school.asp - Milton Friedman – Four ways to spend money investorjunkie.com/economics/milto…ys-spend-money/ - Principle-Agent Problem www.investopedia.com/terms/p/princi…%20and%20agent. - Ambrogio Lorenzetti's Good and Bad Government www.visittuscany.com/en/attractions…ad-government/ - PSIRU report summarising some of the evidence www.epsu.org/sites/default/file…ncy%20EN%20fin.pdf - The effects of bad government www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2020/…d-government/ - What’s so bad about government anyway fee.org/articles/whats-so-bad…ig-government-anyway/ - What is rent-seeking? corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/…concept,It. For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com
Hindsight

Hindsight

2021-08-1827:08

Identifying a friend or family member from a baby photo seems like a trivial task. Conversely, showing someone a photo of a child and asking them to determine the corresponding adult can be immensely difficult. Why does matching the faces of friends and family to photos create the illusion that it is a simple and straightforward task? In this episode, we look at hindsight bias. Why do our brains present versions of the past to suit the present and is there a qualitative difference between image recognition and extrapolation? We discuss hypothesis generation, intractable computational problems, and the limits of probability distribution in analysis. Finally, we see what evolutionary insight can be gleaned from matching photos of babies to their adult selves and put our own biases to the test by interpreting family photos. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - 30 celebrity baby photos https://www.insider.com/27-celebrity-baby-photos-that-show-how-theyve-changed-over-the-years-2017-7#mandy-moore-holds-a-beer-bottle-in-her-baby-photo-2 - Unfamiliar face matching with photographs of infants and children https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001712/ - Unfamiliar faces are not faces: Evidence from a matching task https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/204312685.pdf - When age-progressed images are unreliable: The roles of external features and age range https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1355030616301290 - Comparative evaluation of automatic age progression methodologies https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220057621_Comparative_Evaluation_of_Automatic_Age_Progression_Methodologies For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Jabiz Raisdana via Flickr
When bad luck befalls us, we often say, “wrong place, wrong time.” Rather than accepting that our daily choices continually expose us to new and ever-changing risks, we tend to view life events in terms of good and bad luck. But to what extent are we in control of our own fortunes and can we find solace in the aphorism, “you make your own luck”? In this week’s podcast, we discuss the virtues of luck and circumstance by exploring the relationship between risk and good fortune. Is the measure of one’s luck simply moderated by our appetite for risk? Why do we only bemoan our luck once we turn out to be unlucky? And are our perceptions of good and bad luck shaped by our morality and values? We learn where in the world you are most likely to be struck by lightning, ponder the validity of imposing a tax on mountain-climbers and share some of our own experiences of being in the wrong place at the wrong time. For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image via pxfuel
What Makes an Idiot?

What Makes an Idiot?

2021-08-0429:24

What makes an idiot? Sometimes those who are meant to be the best and brightest among us say the most idiotic things. This suggests intelligence and idiocy are not mutually exclusive characteristics. Can we prevent our own stupidity from becoming manifest or are we all just idiots in waiting? In this podcast, we look at the existence of intelligence and idiocy. We unpick recent examples of utter idiocy and shed light on the biological necessity of intelligence. We attempt to distinguish between intelligence and levels of IQ, and question why people that may say idiotic things often turn out to be brilliant in other areas. Is intelligence merely a product of evolutionary biology and to what extent is it simply confidence in different clothing? Finally, we share some of our own most idiotic moments. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Lunar New Deal: Gohmert suggests altering moon's orbit to combat climate changehttps://www.nbcnews.com/politics/congress/lunar-new-deal-gop-rep-gohmert-suggests-altering-moon-s-n1270219 - Why smart people are more likely to believe fake news https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/apr/01/why-smart-people-are-more-likely-to-believe-fake-news - Intelligence and socioeconomic success: A meta-analytic review of longitudinal research https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289606001127?via%3Dihub For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Sean Ganann via Flickr
A Ten-year Newspaper

A Ten-year Newspaper

2021-07-2845:30

Traditionally newspapers are published daily or weekly, but what if they were only published every ten years or perhaps, even longer? How would you decide what stories to include and which ones should be left on the cutting room floor? Inspired by a chapter in Tim Harford’s new book, “How to Make the World Add Up: Ten Rules for Thinking Differently About Numbers”, our latest podcast examines the news media. We look at how reporting has evolved over time, whether the constant influx of news is creating “news fatigue” instead of educating society, and attempt to unravel what should make an event significant or newsworthy. We try our hand at putting together our ten-year newspaper and discuss what we would include as special features and why. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Pew Research Center: All News By Topic https://www.journalism.org/2011/12/21/all-news-topic/ - Wikipedia: 2010s https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010s - Wikipedia: 2nd Millennium https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2nd_millennium - How to Make the World Add Up: Ten Rules for Thinking Differently About Numbers https://books.google.co.uk/books/about/How_to_Make_the_World_Add_Up.html?id=ziOcDwAAQBAJ&redir_esc=y For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image via pxfuel
Opposites

Opposites

2021-07-2131:52

Opposites are one of the first things we teach children: big-small, short-long, happy-sad. But how universal is the idea of opposites? What's the opposite of a banana for example? In our latest podcast, we take an in-depth look at the concept of opposites. We attempt to define opposites, exploring whether they are based on categorical or quantifiable features, or some intuitive interpretation of context. Finally, we examine how they can be used to help us navigate our environment, supporting rapid analysis and decision-making. And if you're interested in knowing what the opposite of a banana is, Nick will reveal the analytical output of his opposite-generator model. You may find the answer surprising or predictable, rigorous or widely speculative. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Concepts and Categories: A cognitive neuropsychological perspective https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908258/ - Kaggle: Countries of the World Dataset https://www.kaggle.com/fernandol/countries-of-the-world - U.S. Department of Agriculture: Food and nutrient database for dietary studies https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md-bhnrc/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/food-surveys-research-group/docs/fndds/ - Overtly prompting people to “think in opposites” supports insight problem solving https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13546783.2018.1553738?journalCode=ptar20 - Principal Component Analysis: a review and recent developments https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.2015.0202 For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Bill Smith via Flickr
The word 'cheugy' has become a key weapon on the battlefield of intergenerational conflict. We might be its user, its target or utterly oblivious to its meaning. Does our relationship with the word tell us anything interesting and is the modern concept of generations a meaningful one? In this podcast, we look at intergenerational conflict and its causes. We also attempt to determine whether the use of generational categories, such as Gen X or Millennials, represent a coherent and valid framework for understanding culture and history. Finally, we try to place ourselves within the generational continuum and decide the extent to which we are products of our time. How cheugy. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - The Measurement and Evaluation of Social Attitudes in Two British Cohort Studies https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251198647_The_Measurement_and_Evaluation_of_Social_Attitudes_in_Two_British_Cohort_Studies - Generational Differences in Work-Related Attitudes: A Meta-analysis https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10869-012-9259-4 - Generational Differences At Work Are Small. Thinking They’re Big Affects Our Behavior https://hbr.org/2019/08/generational-differences-at-work-are-small-thinking-theyre-big-affects-our-behavior - A Compendium of Trends in the General Social Survey 1972-2018 http://gss.norc.org/Documents/reports/social-change-reports/SC64%20A%20new%20compendium%20of%20trends.pdf - Strauss–Howe Generational Theory https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strauss%E2%80%93Howe_generational_theory - The Method for Determining Time-Generation Range https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2158244020968082 For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Medicating Factors, CC BY-SA 4.0
In the apocryphal story of the Hartlepool monkey, the residents of the town hang a shipwrecked monkey for being a French spy. Why do we search for scapegoats and how can we prevent ourselves from blaming the wrong person? In this podcast we examine the phenomenon of scapegoating and try to understand the human desire to find someone else to blame for our problems. We tackle the concept of blame, look at how to avoid attributing it erroneously and consider whether the monkey was in fact guilty. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Was a monkey really hanged in Hartlepool?? https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-tees-40801937#:~:text=%22There%20is%20no%20evidence%20whatsoever,retired%20teacher%20from%20the%20town - Miscarriages of Justice Registry https://evidencebasedjustice.exeter.ac.uk/miscarriages-of-justice-registry/ - Narrative Retribution and Cognitive Processing https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338233193_Narrative_Retribution_and_Cognitive_Processing - René Girard and the ‘Scapegoat Mechanism’ https://iep.utm.edu/girard/ - Framed: Utilitarianism and Punishment of the Innocent https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/236359854.pdf - Wiki: Sanctions http://sanctionswiki.org/ - Freedom House rights and liberties rankings https://freedomhouse.org/countries/freedom-world/scores For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Oliver Dixon under CC BY-SA 2.0
Is the internet becoming unusable? Does it have a life beyond the constant barrage of annoying pop-ups, cookies, self-playing video commercials, captchas, paywalls and requests to turn off your ad blocker? In this week's podcast, we discuss all the things we think are wrong with the World Wide Web and consider what should be done to rescue the internet, looking at ideas to make it a more informative, quality-assured and user-friendly space. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Spotify Removes Tens of Thousands of Indie Songs For ‘Artificial Streams’ https://www.digitalmusicnews.com/2021/01/06/spotify-reportedly-pulls-indie-songs/ - Where Does the Majority of Internet Traffic Come From? https://www.ncta.com/whats-new/report-where-does-the-majority-of-internet-traffic-come - Kiss Your Browser Goodbye: The Radical Future of Media Beyond the Web https://www.wired.com/1997/03/ff-push/ - The Web is Dead. Long Live the Internet https://www.wired.com/2010/08/ff-webrip/ - The Appification Of Everything Will Transform The World's 360 Million Web Sites https://www.forbes.com/sites/anthonykosner/2012/12/16/forecast-2013-the-appification-of-everything-will-turn-the-web-into-an-app-o-verse/?sh=27784a7314bd - The Appification of Everything and Why it Needs to End https://caseorganic.medium.com/the-appification-of-everything-why-it-needs-to-end-8a2214c1968f - Mises Institute: The Truth About the "Robber Barons" https://mises.org/library/truth-about-robber-barons For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Image under CC BY 2.0
Simplification

Simplification

2021-06-2333:40

Is administering a Covid-19 test on yourself difficult, or are the instructions just confusing? How should we explain complexity and is there a limit to how much we can simplify things? In our latest podcast, we discuss different ways of simplifying information, how to judge the right level of detail for a given context, and whether reductionism is always a useful concept. We look at how simplification can help or hinder understanding, examining some of the consequences of oversimplification. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Reddit: Explain Like I’m Five https://www.reddit.com/r/explainlikeimfive/ - Shannon information and Kolmogorov complexity https://homepages.cwi.nl/~paulv/papers/info.pdf For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com
Spreadsheets, Word documents, PowerPoint presentations: do the ways people format these file types tell us something about the way they think, analyse or organise information? Or do they tell us more about ourselves, when we get frustrated by others' formatting or lack thereof? In this week's podcast, we delve into the use of common applications and discuss the importance of formatting and structure, and whether this is linked to the quality of our analysis. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Tidy Desk or Messy Desk? Each Has Its Benefits https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/releases/tidy-desk-or-messy-desk-each-has-its-benefits.html - Orderliness/Disorderliness Is Mentally Associated With Construal Level and Psychological Distance https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880731/ For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Texas State Library via Flickr.
Online Cultures

Online Cultures

2021-06-0939:00

Are you a fan of League of Legends or a Fortnite feen? Or do you prefer to share and create content on social media? Either way, how much have you thought about your own online behaviour or the behaviour of others? In this week's podcast, we explore online cultures and environments. Specifically, we take an in-depth look at the world of online gaming to see what it can tell us about the evolution of online behaviours and norms, and the factors that influence our interactions with others. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - 12 Games That Can't Escape Their Own Aggressively Toxic Communities https://www.ranker.com/list/video-games-with-toxic-communities/melissa-brinks, - 'Call Of Duty,' 'Dota 2' Ranked In Top Five Most-Toxic Subreddits https://www.forbes.com/sites/hnewman/2020/03/24/call-of-duty-dota-2-ranked-in-top-five-most-toxic-subreddits/?sh=3b1696ad7a9a - Reddit: What online gaming community is the least toxic? https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/6stfcn/seriouswhat_online_gaming_community_is_the_least/ - The 8 Friendliest Gaming Communities https://medium.com/gamerjibe/the-8-friendliest-gaming-communities-13b30b8502df - Data on player numbers https://steamcharts.com/search/ For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Santtu Pajukanta via Creative Commons
Self-Defeating Greed

Self-Defeating Greed

2021-06-0230:03

The aborted attempt, by the world’s richest football clubs, to form a European Super League appears to be another salutary lesson in the self-defeating nature of greed. But, does greed always lead to the death of the goose that laid the golden eggs? We start this podcast by examining the decision-making of the various football clubs involved in trying to establish the European Super League, asking whether it was flawed. We then look at the pros and cons of greed as a driver of behaviour. Finally, we attempt to identify where greed tends to go wrong, and what we might do to harness the energy created by greed, while avoiding its pitfalls. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - European Super League https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/56795811 - Manchester United Business Model https://ir.manutd.com/company-information/business-model.aspx#:~:text=Within%20the%20Commercial%20revenue%20sector,licensing%3B%20and%20mobile%20%26%20content - Is Greed Good? The psychology and philosophy of greed https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/hide-and-seek/201410/is-greed-good#:~:text=Greed%20is%20the%20disordered%20desire,attention%2C%20admiration%2C%20and%20sex - Greed, not generosity, more likely to be ‘paid forward’ https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2012/12/greed-generosity - The Problem of Corporate Greed https://mises.org/library/problem-corporate-greed - Relational Models Theory http://sk.sagepub.com/reference/socialpsychology/n445.xml For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: 2.0 Generic (CC by 2.0) https://www.flickr.com/photos/9731367@N02/7643873724
Fragile, or Resilient?

Fragile, or Resilient?

2021-05-2627:10

How ready are you for whatever the world might throw at you? Using the closure of the Suez Canal as a case study, this week's podcast explores the concepts of fragility and resilience. We discuss whether we can really prepare for unexpected events or should just rely on our adaptability. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - The cost of the Suez Canal blockage https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-56559073 - Lottery winners and accident victims: is happiness relative? https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/690806/ For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com
Making Fast Decisions

Making Fast Decisions

2021-05-1934:42

Using the government’s 'Test and Trace' programme as a case study, this week’s podcast discusses decision-making and analysis in environments where decisions need to be made quickly. We debate whether we should shoot from the hip or take our time when it comes to decision-making, examining the advantages and disadvantages of both ways of operating. We explore different approaches to decision-making, particularly when we are faced with a variety of constraints and varying levels of information or data. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - NHS Test and Trace 'no clear impact' https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-56340831 - Three keys to faster, better decisions https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/three-keys-to-faster-better-decisions - Make Good Decisions Faster https://hbr.org/2013/07/make-good-decisions-faster For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com Image: Elprofeabra via Flickr.
First, Do No Harm

First, Do No Harm

2021-05-1234:41

As the Covid-19 vaccine rollout continues, there is an ongoing discussion in some parts of the world about the relative risks associated with various vaccines. In this podcast, we delve into the principle of 'first, do no harm' - primum non nocere. We discuss this principle, its limitations and how we might determine if the cure is, in fact, worse than the disease. We also examine some of the consequences of medical errors on societal trust and perceptions of competency and credibility. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - AstraZeneca: Thailand delays vaccine rollout over blood clot fears https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-56369550 - 10 Medical Errors That Changed the Standard of Care https://www.medscape.com/features/slideshow/med-errors - The Ten Worst Drug Recalls In The History Of The FDA https://247wallst.com/investing/2010/12/10/the-ten-worst-drug-recalls-in-the-history-of-the-fda/ - ‘Causing Death and Saving Lives’ by Jonathan Glover https://www.amazon.co.uk/Causing-Death-Saving-Lives-death/dp/0140134794 - The Acts and Omissions Doctrine https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/doing-allowing/ For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com
Town Planning

Town Planning

2021-05-0531:03

Are you allowed to choose the colour of your house, the height of your grass, or more importantly can you have a garden gnome? In this podcast, we delve into the world of town planning. We discuss the evolution of urban planning, its pros and cons, and whether new cities have it right or if there are still lessons that can be learned from old towns. We also look at how town planning can affect people's happiness and examine what should be the key considerations when it comes to planning a new town. A few things we mentioned in this podcast: - Hampstead Garden: The History of The Suburb https://www.hgstrust.org/the-suburb/history/index.shtml - Annual personal well-being estimates https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/wellbeing/datasets/headlineestimatesofpersonalwellbeing - ‘Britain’s Love-Hate Relationship with New Towns’ https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/may/15/sterile-or-stirring-britains-love-hate-relationship-with-new-towns - The Private Production of Urban Planning https://mises.org/library/private-production-urban-planning - 10 Reasons Explaining the Importance of Urban Planning https://planningtank.com/city-insight/importance-of-urban-planning For more information on Aleph Insights visit our website https://alephinsights.com or to get in touch about our podcast email podcast@alephinsights.com
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