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Sigma Nutrition Radio

Author: Danny Lennon

Subscribed: 5,953Played: 105,729


Discussions about the science of nutrition, dietetics and health. The podcast that educates through nuanced conversations, exploring evidence and cultivating critical thinking. Hosted by Danny Lennon.
398 Episodes
In this episode Alan and Danny answer a variety of questions sent in from listeners. Questions: [1:10] Gabriel - Is there any benefit to including SFAs and cholesterol in low quantities in our diets for healthspan? [10:42] Luis Arrondo - Can I do 3 rather than 4 meals or more for protein absorption by increasing grams of protein? How many grams of protein can be absorbed at one sitting. Does taking in protein at night help more absorption of protein? If so, something slower, like milk over whey? Last, how much protein per kilo of weight to gain muscle via weightlifing? [19:34] Heather Smith - Please could you go into the sodium needs of those with hypotension. Your podcast about normotension and hypertension was excellent, as was the section relating to athletes. I’d love to hear your thoughts on the sodium needs of a hypotensive person. Thank you! [27:00] Judith Williams - I would find it really helpful if you could summarise what the evidence shows are the key dietary changes for long term weight loss. [36:41] Dale Grant - Great podcast and episode as normal especially the quack asylum (big fan of this segment). Having listened to a few of these extreme people (quacks) on various platforms, I’ve noticed they also employ an aggressive falsify my opponents position tactic. Its almost as if they are aware of Karl Poppers falsification principle, but have misinterpreted it as falsify my "opponents" position instead of my own. Aside from the fact they falsely view the person they are having a debate with as their “opponent”, they miss the point that they should be trying to find evidence to falsify their own position, and thus get closer to a capital T Truth. On the other hand as Alan pointed out with Assem Mahlhotra, this may just be a reluctance to acknowledge evidence for other reasons (narcissism, us vs Them narrative, etc). Nowhere was this more apparent than when James Wilks (host of mass propaganda film game changers), sought to aggressively debate Chris Kresser on the Joe Rogan Podcast. Considering Wilks is a former cage fighter this wasn’t surprising. Unfortunately, this aggressive tactic does lead some people to conclude that Wilks has “won” the argument, because he has “won” the debate. Similar to most modern debates, it seems like you don’t have to win the debate intellectually with reason. Instead you just have to make it seem as if your more competent than your opponent. Do you agree these extreme people employ this tactic? and how do you think we could improve “scientific” debates (note inverted commas) in the public domain in the future? [46:40] Dimitri - Should fruit consumption be moderated because of the sugar content? For example, a fig has 8g of sugar, can I eat 5-10 in one sitting or would that be detrimental to health? [51:26] Rebecca Toutant - What is the evidence / practice behind integrative and functional nutrition? [56:06] Duncan Clarke - This will be a strange question for you but I'll send it anyway. How could a cyclist specifically lose upper body muscle mass? For example a fit healthy athlete from another sport takes up cycling and they now have more arm/shoulder muscle than needed. The goal being to maximize the power to weight ratio for climbing. [60:15] Gabriel - Do you foresee any public health issues related to the increasing popularity of plant based diets, where less careful individuals may face issues consuming certain nutrients harder to get from a plant based diet, such as preformed Vitamin A, choline, iron, protein etc? [72:03] Ward Stanford - After re-listening to your podcast on weight maintenance over time I was wondering what information exists on the idea of establishing new body fat set points. It seems like merely existing at a lower bf% for a period of time may not be enough, but what are your thoughts on one's ability to truly create a lower set point where it becomes easier to maintain a lower body fat, and how long would you need to be at that lower bf% for it to become a "set point" Thank you!
In this episode nutritionist Simon Hill discusses the barriers to eating a healthy diet, steps that can be taken to shift both individuals and the general population to a healthier dietary patten, and a number of other topics. Find the show notes at 
Dr. Mario Kratz is a clinical researcher in the areas of nutrition, obesity, and cardiometabolic disease, with more than 20 years of experience running clinical studies in a variety of populations. He is a former research associate professor at the University of Washington in the departments of Medicine and Epidemiology. And is also formerly an Associate Professor at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Washington state. You can find the show notes at or you can support the show on
In this episode we discuss the potential impact of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular disease risk; including impacts on blood pressure, flow-mediated dilation, and other related outcomes. We talk about some potential mechanisms and then several specific randomized, controlled trials. You can find the show notes at and you can support the podcast on
In this episode we discuss the potential impact of dietary polyphenols on cognitive health; including cogitnitve funciton, memory, and risk of dementia and Alzeimher's. We talk about some potential mechanisms, cohort studies, and then direct controlled trials. You can find the show notes at and/or support the podcast at
Dr Adrian Brown is a NIHR Lecturer and Research Fellow in the Centre of Obesity Research at University College London. He is also a senior Specialist Weight Management and Bariatric dietitian with over 15 years of clinical experience and a PhD in Medicine from Imperial College London. His research interests centre around obesity, type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery, weight stigma and the use of formula-based diets in different patient populations. He is an Honorary Academic for Public Health England Obesity and Healthy Weight Team, on the strategic council for APPG on Obesity and is on the scientific council of the British Nutrition Foundation.   You can find the show notes to this episode at and you can support the podcast at
Prof. Marion Hetherington is Professor of Biopsychology at University of Leeds, where her research is focused on the psychology of appetite across the lifespan. She has previously been at Johns Hopkins, the NIH, the University of Dundee, University of Liverpool and Glasgow Caledonian University, before taking up her role in Leeds in 2008, where she works within the Human Appetite Research Unit. You can find the show notes to this episode at and you can support the podcast at
Prof. David Jacobs, PhD is Professor of Public Health, in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, at the University of Minnesota. He has published highly inflential work in nutritional epidemiology and health epidemiolgy for decades. A number of his papers have brought up crucially important ideas about how to do good nutrition science. Specifically, he has talked about think of whole diet or foods as the exposure of interest, rather than individual nutrients. Essentially warning against the pitfalls of applying a biomedical lens to nutrition research. You can find the show notes to this episode at
Prof. Leanne Redman is a Professor of Reproductive Endocrinology & Women’s Health, based at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center. As the director of the Reproductive Endocrinology and Women’s Health Laboratory, she is focused on understanding the intergenerational transmission of obesity. She has published on maternal diet, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes, amoung other issues. She and her colleagues are currently conducting a rigorous trial to determine the effects of a 6-month gestational intervention with calorie restriction and food provision to promote maternal weight maintenance and fat loss in 100 pregnant women with grades 2 and 3 obesity. Show notes are available at You can support the podcast at
We take a look at three more "quacks" who spread misinformation; Dr. Michael Greger (01:21), Eric Berg (36:26), and Dr. Paul Saladino (55:18). We give reference to some specific examples. Show notes available at If you wish to support the podcast you can do so via
To celebrate our 400th episode, we take a look at two "quacks" who spread misinformation; Dr. Aseem Malhotra and Dr. James DiNicolantonio. We give reference to some specific examples. Show notes available at Subscribe to Danny's free weekly email, the Sigma Synopsis at: Support the podcast on Patreon at:
James Betts is Professor of Metabolic Physiology at the University of Bath, where he is Co-Director of the Centre for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism. His research employs randomised controlled trials to study the effects of nutrition on metabolic regulation. His group recently published a trial aiming to separate out the effects of fasting from those of calorie restriction. Show notes at
Carole Hooven, PhD, is lecturer and codirector of undergraduate studies in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. She earned her PhD at Harvard, studying behavioral endocrinology and evolution of sex differences in humans (physiology, behavior and cognition). She has recently written a book on how testosterone influences behaviour and explains many sex differences. The book is titled 'T: The Story of Testosterone, the Hormone that Dominates and Divides Us'. Show notes available at
In this episode Danny & Alan discuss the impacts of nitrates and nitrites on health. They look at the beneficial impacts of dietary nitrate, as well as issues around nitrites in processed meat. Show notes available at
Dr. Leigh Frame, PhD is Director of Integrative Medicine at George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences in Washington DC. Dr. Frame received her PhD in Human Nutrition, as well as a Master of Health Science degree in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In this episode we discuss a range of topics including: the role of placebo groups and the different types we see in nutrient supplementation trials, potential ethical issues, and the development of research ethics. Show notes available at
Professor le Roux is an expert in metabolic medicine and is currently a Professor of Experimental Pathology, University College Dublin. He is recognised as a world leader in metabolism and obesity. Professor le Roux’s clinical focus is in the management of Type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk and other metabolic disorders. Professor Carel le Roux has been published extensively and currently holds a number of editorial roles for journals in his field including, Clinical Obesity and Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases. Show notes are available at:
Gar Benn is the Head of Coaching at Sigma Nutrition, where he works with nutrition coaching clients and oversees the coaching services. He is the owner of CityGym Limerick, a powerlifting-centric gym in Ireland. And he is also the co-founder of the European Powerlifting Confernce and Titan Ireland. Gar is a qualifed nutrition coach and has completed courses in Motivational Interviewing and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Show notes at
Vitamin D status is linked to a variety of health outcomes, and avoiding or correcting deficiency is important. However, does supplementing with vitamin D actually benefit most people? Is there evidence for supplementation improving health outcomes like mortality, cancer risk, depression or other outcomes? In this episode Danny and Alan look at intervention trials of vitamin D supplementation. Show notes available at:
Dr. Clare Pettinger is a Registered Dietitian, Public Health Nutritionist and experienced educator. Dr. Pettinger publishes research in the public health nutrition field, and lectures at the Universtity of Plymouth, UK.  Dr. Pettinger is actively engaged in community-focussed research around food systems, poverty and social justice. She is an enthusiastic 'sustainability advocate' involved in promoting environmentally sustainable diets for nutrition professionals and Allied Health Professioinals.  Show notes available at
In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the three primary models used to explain body mass regulation: 1) Set Point Model, 2) Settling Point Model, 3) Dual Intervention Model. They discuss the role of feedback systems, environment, behaviour, as well as discussing both the "thrifty gene hypothesis" and John Speakman's "drifty gene hypothesis".
Comments (19)

Matt M

A rehash of old episodes

May 13th

Matt M


Jan 26th


"nutrition lore" 🤣🤣 omg such a descriptive little phrase!

Sep 7th


what about choline supplementation for vegan diets, esp during pregnancy??

Jul 25th

Joern Utermann

really really enjoyed this episode! very interesting topic and cool new format!

Apr 26th


very good episode!

Nov 28th

Mason Verkruisen

assume foods are bad for you until proven innocent is a terrible idea.

Oct 11th

Shasa Bolton

Great non biased informative discussions with experts in their fields. Thanks for the show

Sep 19th


Worst podcast EVER. The audio quality is total crap. What a shame

Aug 19th

Bex G

Brilliant episode, thanks.

Jul 31st

Aaron Trowbridge

Very interesting debate, thanks for the quality content.

Jan 13th

Benyamin Asgari

excelent podcast . love it .

Jan 2nd

Maria Kirby

Another brilliant episode !! I wondered if you would consider doing an episode/discussing how to know what probiotics are recommended for different conditions. I have had my gallbladder removed and suffer with poor digestion and would love to hear more about what I can do to help digestion and possibly what probiotics are recommended for this. Thanks, Maria

Nov 29th

Matt M


Sep 18th

Matt M

Great episode 👍🏼

Sep 11th


Love the show!

Jun 8th

Artin Entezarjou

Great show! We use it to get insight into the evidence for our Instagram page @ebtofficial

May 18th


Just found your podcast loving it so far, ATP science is my other favourite but they are also selling products so it is a little bit tainted in that way. your podcast is refreshing because you aren't trying to sell me anything. excepting maybe your guests or sponsors but there's no getting around that. thanks for the hard work love it. p.s. is it possible to have your patreon link in the description on castbox?

May 15th

Andrew Moore

Very informative and enjoyable!

Mar 5th
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