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The Metabolic Classroom with Dr. Ben Bikman
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The Metabolic Classroom with Dr. Ben Bikman

Author: Insulin IQ

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Welcome to The Metabolic Classroom, a nutrition and lifestyle podcast focused on metabolism, which is how our bodies use energy, and the truth behind why we get sick and fat. Every week, Dr. Ben Bikman shares valuable insights that you can apply in your own life and share with friends and loved ones. The Metabolic Classroom is brought to you by

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59 Episodes
In this episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Bikman, a biomedical scientist and professor of cell biology, delves into the concept of energy toxicity.He begins by explaining that energy toxicity attempts to explain why certain cells, particularly those capable of storing energy like muscle and liver cells, become insulin resistant. The primary idea is that when these cells accumulate excess energy, particularly in the form of triglycerides, they become resistant to further energy storage by becoming insulin resistant. He clarifies that this is closely related to lipotoxicity, where the stored fat itself, rather than glycogen, is seen as the main culprit for this condition.Ben notes that while the notion of energy toxicity encompasses both glucose and fats, triglycerides, a type of fat stored in muscle and liver cells, play a significant role. However, studies, such as one on endurance athletes, have shown that muscle triglycerides alone do not cause insulin resistance, leading to the concept of the “athlete’s paradox.”Dr. Bikman further explores the biochemical pathways involved in insulin resistance, emphasizing that specific lipid intermediates, particularly diacylglycerols (DAGs) and ceramides, are more relevant than triglycerides in causing insulin resistance. DAGs disrupt the insulin signaling pathway by activating protein kinase C, while ceramides inhibit insulin signaling and affect mitochondrial function, increasing reactive oxygen species and contributing to insulin resistance.Ben challenges the notion of energy toxicity as a primary cause of insulin resistance, advocating instead for a focus on lipotoxicity and its mediators. He concludes that chronically elevated insulin levels, rather than the stored energy itself, are the main drivers of insulin resistance, suggesting that the term “insulin toxicity” might be more appropriate. This understanding is crucial for addressing what he identifies as the most common health issue worldwide—insulin resistance.01:16: Defining Energy Toxicity02:58: Lipotoxicity vs. Energy Toxicity06:20: Ectopic Fat Storage08:20: Triglycerides in Muscle Cells13:57: The Athlete's Paradox17:11: DAGs and Insulin Resistance19:26: Ceramides and Mitochondrial Function29:21: Insulin and Lipolysis33:59: High Insulin and Insulin ResistanceStudies Referenced:A phenomenon known as the “athlete’s paradox”: #MetabolicHealth #InsulinResistance #EnergyToxicity #Lipotoxicity #BenBikman #CellBiology #Triglycerides #DiabetesResearch #FatMetabolism #EctopicFat #KetogenicDiet #InsulinSensitivity #MitochondrialFunction #MetabolicClassroom #HealthScience #BiomedicalResearch #Endocrinology #Metabolism #HealthEducation #Type2Diabetes Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Bikman begins by emphasizing the critical role of insulin in regulating the body’s use of fuel, and influencing whether nutrients are stored or burned.He highlights that food is a primary driver of insulin levels, but other factors like stress and sleep deprivation significantly impact insulin resistance.Stress, often exacerbated by poor sleep hygiene, leads to elevated levels of cortisol and epinephrine, which in turn increase blood glucose levels. Ben explains that going to bed on a full stomach can worsen sleep quality, further contributing to insulin resistance.Dr. Bikman discusses a study showing that restricting sleep to five hours per night for a week resulted in significant increases in cortisol and epinephrine, along with a notable decrease in insulin sensitivity. This chronic elevation of stress hormones due to poor sleep disrupts the natural circadian rhythm, causing a constant high level of cortisol, which not only hampers insulin function but also damages muscle, bone, and skin by promoting the breakdown of proteins for glucose production.Dr. Bikman advises improving sleep hygiene, such as reducing evening snacking and dimming lights, rather than relying on stimulants like caffeine, which can exacerbate cortisol levels and insulin resistance.00:57 - Impact of Stress on Insulin Resistance01:59 - Effect of Evening Eating on Sleep Quality02:59 - Study on Sleep Restriction and Insulin Sensitivity04:10 - Stress Hormones and Sleep Deprivation07:53 - Circadian Rhythm Disruption08:54 - Cortisol’s Broader Effects10:45 - Advice on Improving Sleep HygieneStudies referenced in this episode: #InsulinResistance #MetabolicHealth #DrBenBikman #Nutrition #Health #SleepDeprivation #StressManagement #Hormones #Cortisol #HealthyEating #SleepHygiene #InsulinSensitivity #Glucose #CircadianRhythm #KetogenicDiet #DiabetesPrevention #HealthTips #Wellness #Caffeine #HealthyLifestyle Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Bikman explores the history, science, and benefits of ketones, focusing on exogenous ketones.Ben highlights the significant benefits of ketones for brain health. He disputes the common belief that glucose is the brain’s preferred fuel, citing research by Dr. George Cahill that indicates the brain relies heavily on ketones during fasting.The classroom also addresses the evolution and advantages of exogenous ketones. Early forms of exogenous ketones, like ketone salts, had limitations such as mineral imbalance and poor taste. Advances led to the development of ketone esters and bioidentical BHB, which are more effective and palatable. Exogenous ketones can help control appetite, reduce inflammation, and improve exercise performance. Despite initial concerns about their potential to be converted back into fat, Professor Bikman clarifies that this is not a risk, as the liver cannot reverse ketone production into fat.Overall, Dr. Bikman emphasizes that while ketones themselves offer numerous metabolic benefits, the primary advantage of a ketogenic state is maintaining low insulin levels, which supports fat burning and overall metabolic health. He encourages the use of exogenous ketones to enhance these benefits, particularly for managing cravings, improving physical performance, and supporting cognitive function.00:01 - Introduction to Ketones01:58 - Types of Ketones - Explanation of the three main types of ketones: acetoacetate, acetone, and beta-hydroxybutyrate.02:58 - Ketones and Blood Acidity - Discussion on how ketones can affect blood acidity and the distinction between ketosis and ketoacidosis.04:04 - Insulin's Role in Ketone Production - How insulin levels determine whether the body produces fat or ketones from acetyl-CoA.07:23 - Benefits of Low Insulin Levels - Overview of the metabolic benefits of low insulin levels, including improved fat burning and metabolic health.08:19 - Ketones and Brain Health - The positive effects of ketones on brain function and cognitive health, debunking the myth that glucose is the brain's preferred fuel.13:33 - Ketones and Physical Performance - Evidence that ketones improve physical performance and energy efficiency in muscle cells.17:31 - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ketones - Ketones’ role in inhibiting inflammation and their benefits for inflammatory disorders.Studies Referenced:Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s (Cunnane et al., 2016): Elicit Distinct Alterations in Adipose Mitochondrial Bioenergetics: Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice: Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Insulin Sensitivity and Weight Loss, Which Came First: The Chicken or the Egg?: Learn more: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Ben Bikman challenges the traditional view that saturated fats are the primary cause of atherosclerotic plaques and heart disease. He asserts that while plaques, or atheromas, in coronary arteries are composed partly of fats and foam cells, the exact process of plaque formation remains speculative. Dr. Bikman emphasizes that anyone claiming to know the definitive cause of plaque formation is likely overstating their knowledge. Foam cells, which are fat-laden macrophages, play a critical role in plaque development and are consistently present at the sites of these plaques.Dr. Bikman explains that inflammation is a significant factor in atherosclerosis, and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, is a better predictor of heart disease than LDL cholesterol. He describes how macrophages engulf oxidized LDL cholesterol, turning into foam cells and secreting pro-inflammatory proteins like CRP. This process is driven by the presence of oxidized lipids, particularly those derived from omega-6 polyunsaturated fats such as linoleic acid, which are prevalent in modern diets due to the widespread use of vegetable oils.Ben highlights several studies to support his argument. A notable study from 1979 by Brown and Goldstein showed that macrophages only consume LDL cholesterol when it is oxidized, not in its native form. Another study from 1998 found that oxidized LDL containing specific bioactive lipids, nine and 13 HODE, is particularly problematic. These oxidized lipids are derived from linoleic acid, not from saturated or monounsaturated fats. Moreover, historical dietary studies, such as the Minnesota Coronary Experiment and the Sydney Diet Heart Study, revealed that participants consuming more polyunsaturated fats had higher mortality rates than those consuming saturated fats.To conclude, Dr. Bikman argues that the traditional belief that saturated fat causes heart disease is flawed. He points out that recent studies, including a correlational study published in the British Medical Journal, show that refined grains, not saturated fats, are more strongly linked to heart disease and overall mortality. He suggests that the real dietary culprit is the overconsumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fats, particularly linoleic acid, found in processed foods. This shift in perspective underscores the importance of reevaluating dietary guidelines and focusing on the types of fats consumed.#HeartHealth #SaturatedFat #Atherosclerosis #Inflammation #InsulinResistance #LDLCholesterol #OxidizedLDL #FoamCells #Macrophages #BenBikman #MetabolicHealth #CholesterolMyths #LinoleicAcid #PolyunsaturatedFats #DietaryFats #CardiovascularResearchStudies referenced:Binding Site on Macrophages that Mediates Uptake in Degradation by Brown and Goldstein (1979): Oxidized LDL Regulates Macrophage Gene Expression (1998): You can find more details on this study in resources like ScienceDirect and Cell Journal (you may need specific access or subscriptions to retrieve full texts).Strong Increase in Hydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Linoleic Acid in Human Low-Density Lipoproteins of Atherosclerotic Patients (1998): Learn more: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
This episode of The Metabolic Classroom is sponsored by RxSugar. Use this link to get 20% off: - Overview of Uric Acid: Explanation of what uric acid is and its origins from purine metabolism.03:16 - Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia: Discussion on uric acid production, excretion, and the condition of hyperuricemia.05:09 - Gout and Uric Acid Crystallization: How high uric acid levels lead to gout and kidney stones.07:08 - Importance of Uric Acid in Metabolism: Why uric acid is important, its clinical relevance, and its connection to insulin resistance.09:14 - Uric Acid and Inflammation: How uric acid causes systemic inflammation and contributes to insulin resistance.12:27 - Sources of Uric Acid, Purines and Fructose: Detailed breakdown of purine and fructose metabolism leading to uric acid production.16:31 - Fructose Metabolism and Uric Acid: The role of the liver in metabolizing fructose and its link to uric acid production.22:47 - Pharmacological and Nutritional Interventions: Treatments like allopurinol and the benefits of allulose in reducing uric acid.30:34 - Ketogenic Diet and Uric Acid: The effects of the ketogenic diet on uric acid levels and insulin sensitivity.Summary:In this episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Professor Bikman discusses the significance of uric acid, particularly its impact on insulin resistance. Uric acid, a byproduct of purine metabolism, is usually expelled through the kidneys. When production exceeds excretion, it leads to hyperuricemia, causing gout, kidney stones, and inflammation linked to insulin resistance.Dr. Bikman explains that excessive uric acid activates inflammation pathways, producing ceramides that disrupt insulin signaling, leading to insulin resistance. He highlights the connection between fructose consumption and uric acid production, noting that unregulated fructose metabolism in the liver increases uric acid levels. This rise in fructose intake, rather than purine-rich foods, contributes to gout and metabolic issues.To address this, Dr. Bikman discusses pharmacological interventions like allopurinol, which lowers uric acid levels but may have side effects. He also mentions allulose, a rare sugar that shows promise in reducing uric acid by enhancing its excretion. Despite potentially increasing uric acid, the ketogenic diet is noted for reducing inflammation and improving insulin sensitivity due to ketones.Dr. Bikman concludes by emphasizing the importance of understanding uric acid's role in metabolic health and encourages further research and practical dietary interventions to manage uric acid levels, integrating pharmacological, nutritional, and lifestyle approaches to improve overall metabolic health.Studies referenced in this episode: Learn more at: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Professor Ben Bikman, an expert in metabolic research, discusses the debate surrounding saturated fat and its impact on insulin resistance.Dr. Bikman addresses misconceptions about saturated fat perpetuated by proponents of plant-based diets, who often blame meat-based saturated fats for insulin resistance. He refers to his own 2011 research, highlighting the role of toll-like receptor four (TLR4) activation in inducing inflammation and insulin resistance, particularly stimulated by saturated fats.Acknowledging limitations in his earlier work, Dr. Bikman transitions to discussing fat digestion and absorption, setting the stage for studies on the impact of dietary saturated fat on metabolic outcomes. He cites a study by Volk et al. (2014) contradicting the direct link between dietary saturated fat intake and plasma saturated fat levels. Further, he discusses research challenging the low-fat emphasis of diets like DASH, including a study by Chiu et al. (2016) showing comparable blood pressure reduction with a high-fat version.The lecture also covers a meta-analysis by Choi et al. (2020) supporting the benefits of ketogenic diets high in saturated fat for glycemic control and insulin resistance.Dr. Bikman emphasizes the importance of considering context, suggesting that saturated fat consumption without excessive carbohydrate intake may not necessarily lead to insulin resistance. However, he acknowledges studies indicating potential concerns with high saturated fat intake in hypercaloric, high-carb diets, advocating for balanced macronutrient consumption.00:01 - Introduction of the topic of saturated fat and insulin resistance, highlighting common misconceptions and his expertise in the field.02:33 - Role of TLR4: Research on toll-like receptor four (TLR4) activation and its connection to inflammation and ceramide synthesis, leading to insulin resistance.07:05 - Fat Digestion Primer: Explanation of fat digestion in the small intestine, emphasizing the formation of chylomicrons for fat transport into the bloodstream.11:55 - Study by Volk et al. (2014): Key study that challenges the idea of dietary saturated fat directly increasing plasma saturated fat levels, despite high consumption.16:41 - High-Fat DASH Diet Study: Research comparing a high-fat version of the DASH diet to the standard low-fat version, highlighting similar blood pressure reduction but improved lipid profiles with the high-fat diet.19:46 - Meta-analysis by Choi et al. (2020): Demonstrating the benefits of ketogenic diets, typically high in saturated fat, in improving glycemic control and insulin resistance.21:40 - Historical Trends: The paradox of decreasing saturated fat consumption over time while insulin resistance rates have increased, suggesting a more complex relationship.25:58 - Overfeeding Studies: Studies showing that overconsumption of carbohydrates, particularly refined sugars and starches, can increase liver fat and saturated fat production, contributing to insulin resistance.27:09 - Study by Luukkonen et al. (2018): Study indicating that in a hypercaloric, high-carb diet, high saturated fat intake may worsen insulin resistance compared to high unsaturated fat intake.28:06 - Conclusion: The need for nuanced understanding, context, and critical appraisal of research findings regarding the relationship between saturated fat, carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance. #SaturatedFat #MetabolicHealth #NutritionScience #HealthEducation #DietaryMyths #CellBiology #ResearchInsights #FatDigestion #KetogenicDiet #CardiometabolicHealth #DASHDiet #Inflammation #MedicalResearch #HealthDebunked Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
This episode of the Metabolic Classroom is sponsored by Redmond Real Salt. Use code BEN15 to get 15% off of their products: https://redmond.lifeSummary:In this lecture, Professor Ben Bikman explores the cardiometabolic effects of salt intake, detailing its role in electrolyte balance, fluid regulation, nerve function, muscle contractions, acid-base balance, and nutrient absorption. He explains the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and its response to low blood pressure or sodium levels, leading to sodium retention and water reabsorption in the kidneys. Dr. Bikman discusses how insulin influences salt handling by stimulating sodium reabsorption and increasing aldosterone production. He warns against the unintended consequences of salt restriction, such as elevated insulin levels and resistance, exacerbating metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.Shifting focus to fat cells, Dr. Bikman explains how aldosterone and angiotensin II affect fat cell growth and differentiation, promoting lipogenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis. He suggests salt restriction may contribute to obesity and insulin resistance. Discussing potential anti-obesity effects, he mentions angiotensin receptor blockers inhibiting angiotensin II signaling in fat cells.Dr. Bikman stresses the complex interplay between salt, insulin, and fat cell biology, cautioning against oversimplified dietary recommendations. He encourages critical thinking about salt intake's impact on metabolic health and body composition, advocating for deeper understanding and knowledge sharing to improve health outcomes.01:52: Importance of Salt in the Body - Overview of the essential role of salt, particularly sodium, in electrolyte balance, fluid regulation, nerve function, muscle contractions, acid-base balance, and nutrient absorption.06:00: Biochemical Pathways of Salt Regulation - Detailed explanation of the RAAS cascade, involving renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin I and II, and aldosterone. Discussion of the physiological effects of angiotensin II, including vasoconstriction, thirst stimulation, and stimulation of aldosterone production.09:48: Interaction Between Salt Regulation and Insulin - Exploration of the interaction between salt regulation pathways and insulin, including insulin's direct effect on sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and its modulation of the RAAS. Explanation of how salt restriction can lead to increased insulin levels and insulin resistance.13:44: Consequences of Salt Restriction - Discussion of the negative health consequences of salt restriction, including increased insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Reference to studies showing the association between salt restriction and adverse metabolic outcomes.17:58: Hypertension and Cardiovascular Health - Summary of the relationship between salt restriction, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Mention of anti-hypertensive medications targeting the RAAS, such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.20:59: Metabolic Effects on Fat Cells - Transition to discussing the metabolic effects of salt-regulating pathways on fat cells. Explanation of how aldosterone and angiotensin II promote fat cell growth, differentiation, lipogenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis.27:53: Conclusion and Takeaways - Recap of the lecture's key points, emphasizing the complex interplay between salt intake, insulin, and fat cell biology. Call to action for critical thinking about dietary recommendations and sharing of knowledge for informed decision-making.Learn more at: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
Dr. Ben Bikman, a biomedical scientist and expert in cell biology, welcomes his audience to a discussion on lipedema, a topic he’s been asked about frequently. He highlights the importance of addressing insulin resistance through diet.Ben begins by providing a primer on adipose tissue, explaining its composition and the role of fat cells and fibroblasts. He delves into the structural changes in collagen within fat tissue, particularly in lipedema, where there's an overproduction of collagen leading to increased rigidity and compression on fat cells and nerves.The lecture explores why lipedema predominantly affects women, linking it to hormonal changes, particularly increases in estrogen levels during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. Ben explains how estrogen influences fibroblast activity, leading to excessive collagen production and fibrosis in lipedema.The discussion then delves into the mechanisms of pain in lipedema, attributing it to both mechanical pressure on nerves and biochemical factors such as inflammation. Finally, Ben explores various treatment approaches, including compression therapy, manual lymphatic drainage, and low-carbohydrate diets, which have shown promise in reducing pain and improving quality of life in women with lipedema.Throughout the lecture, Dr. Bikman emphasizes a paradigm shift in understanding lipedema as a disorder of connective tissue rather than fat cells alone, offering insights into its pathophysiology and potential therapeutic interventions. He concludes by highlighting recent research supporting the efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets in managing lipedema.HLTH Code Complete Meal:Click here to get an extra 10% off your first order! Use the code above!01:59 - Adipocyte Structure04:43 - Collagen Alterations in Lipedema06:57 - Estrogen’s Role in Lipedema10:10 - Mechanical Factors Contributing to Pain11:07 - Biochemical Factors Contributing to Pain14:11 - Therapeutic Interventions for Lipedema23:27 - Impact of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Pain Reduction30:14 - Insights into Fat Cell Function and Hormonal Influence37:31 - SummaryEffect of a low-carbohydrate diet on pain and quality of life in female patients with lipedema: a randomized controlled trialThe Benefits of Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat (LCHF) Diet on Body Composition, Leg Volume, and Pain in Women with LipedemaDr. Bikman’s website#Lipedema #Lipadema #LipedemaAwareness #Lipoedema #LipedemaSupport #LipedemaTreatment #LipedemaSurgery #LipedemaTherapy #LipedemaDiet #LipedemaLegs #InsulinResistance #InsulinResistanceAwareness #InsulinResistanceDiet #InsulinSensitivity #MetabolicSyndrome #Type2Diabetes #BloodSugarControl #InsulinResistanceSupport #HealthyLiving #diabetesprevention Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
Dr. Ben Bikman discusses the intricate relationship between metabolic health and male infertility.While metabolic health is often associated with conditions like obesity and diabetes, Dr. Bikman emphasizes its relevance to less obvious issues like male infertility. He notes that while the processes of reproduction differ between the sexes, they share a common metabolic core.Ben highlights that infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive, with men contributing to around 30% of cases. He explains the role of hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in male reproductive function, detailing their influence on spermatogenesis and testosterone production.The classroom lecture delves into how poor metabolic health, particularly insulin resistance, can disrupt testosterone production and lead to issues like erectile dysfunction and reduced sperm quality. Insulin resistance affects testosterone synthesis directly in the testes and indirectly by promoting aromatization, the conversion of testosterone into estrogen, leading to a vicious cycle of reduced testosterone and increased insulin resistance.Dr. Bikman discusses various strategies to improve metabolic health and potentially alleviate male infertility, including dietary changes, medication such as insulin-sensitizing drugs like metformin, and exercise, particularly resistance training. He stresses the importance of addressing underlying metabolic issues to improve reproductive outcomes and suggests that prioritizing metabolic health before attempting reproduction is crucial.In conclusion, Dr. Bikman underscores the interconnectedness of metabolic health and reproductive function, advocating for a holistic approach to addressing male infertility that focuses on improving insulin sensitivity and overall metabolic well-being.00:00 - Introduction to metabolic health's relevance in male infertility01:18 - Infertility statistics and men's contribution to the issue02:37 - Hormonal role in male reproductive function: FSH and LH03:53 - FSH and LH stimulation of spermatogenesis and testosterone05:57 - Testosterone's functions in male fertility and maturation08:04 - Nitric oxide's role in erectile function and its insulin connection11:28 - How insulin resistance impacts testosterone production and erectile dysfunction14:02 - Insulin resistance's effects on testosterone synthesis and aromatization18:55 - Strategies to improve metabolic health and alleviate male infertility26:38 - Conclusion: The link between metabolic health and reproductive function#MaleInfertility #FertilityHealth #Metabolism #ReproductiveHealth #InfertilityAwareness #MenHealth #SpermHealth #HormonalHealth #NutritionForFertility #HealthTalk #MaleHealth #FertilityJourney #HealthyLiving #HolisticHealth Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this lecture, Professor Ben Bikman delves into the metabolic aspects of female infertility, specifically focusing on the influence of insulin resistance. He begins by highlighting the high prevalence of infertility among women of reproductive age, with up to 15% affected globally, and particularly prevalent in regions with high rates of insulin resistance, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East.Insulin resistance, a condition where cells become less responsive to insulin, plays a crucial role in female infertility. Dr. Bikman explains that insulin resistance manifests in two main aspects: disrupted insulin signaling in cells and elevated blood insulin levels, known as hyperinsulinemia. These disruptions affect various stages of reproductive physiology, including oocyte development, ovulation, and implantation.Dr. Bikman then provides a detailed explanation of the ovulatory cycle, emphasizing the interplay of hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in regulating follicle growth, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation. He discusses how insulin resistance can interfere with this process, leading to poor oocyte quality, failed ovulation, and complications with implantation.The lecture further explores conditions associated with insulin resistance and female infertility, notably polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Dr. Bikman explains the Rotterdam criteria used for diagnosing PCOS, which include irregular ovulation, signs of hyperandrogenism, and ovarian cysts. He elucidates how insulin resistance contributes to the development of PCOS by inhibiting aromatase activity, leading to reduced estradiol production and disrupted ovulation.Finally, Dr. Bikman discusses treatment approaches for PCOS, including the use of insulin-sensitizing medications like metformin and dietary interventions such as low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diets. He underscores the importance of addressing insulin resistance to improve ovulatory function and mitigate the most common form of female infertility.(00:01) Introduction to Female Infertility and Metabolism(01:14) Global Prevalence of Female Infertility and its Association with Insulin Resistance(02:23) Understanding Insulin Resistance and its Impact on Female Reproductive Physiology(05:30) The Ovulatory Cycle and the Role of Hormones in Reproduction(11:14) Effects of Insulin Resistance on Oocyte Development and Ovulation(13:27) Impact of Insulin Resistance on Implantation and Uterine Health(17:19) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and its Relationship with Insulin Resistance(33:44) Treatment Approaches for PCOS: Medications and Dietary InterventionsLearn more at #pcosawareness #PCOSTips #PCOSJourney #PCOSCommunity #PCOSFight #PCOSWarrior #FertilityJourney #InfertilityAwareness #TTC #FertilityTips #FertilitySupport #InfertilitySupport #ConceptionJourney #FertilityTreatment #PCOSandFertility #InfertilityStruggle #PCOSAwarenessMonth #IVF #FertilityHealth #FertilitySuccessStories Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this Metabolic Classroom episode, Dr. Bikman delves into the intricate dynamics of fatty liver disease, a prevalent metabolic problem affecting millions worldwide. Describing the liver as the “soccer mom” of metabolism due to its involvement in various metabolic processes, Ben emphasizes the liver’s central role in nutrient metabolism, particularly in handling fats.Fatty liver disease, once primarily associated with alcohol consumption, has now become a widespread issue driven by metabolic factors. It progresses from simple fat accumulation to inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH), fibrosis, and potentially cirrhosis.Insulin resistance, a key player in metabolic disorders, is dissected into two components: impaired insulin action and chronically elevated insulin levels (hyperinsulinemia). Dr. Bikman highlights the crucial role of insulin in driving fat accumulation in the liver, explaining that elevated insulin is necessary for the liver to store fat and prevent its breakdown, even in the presence of excess free fatty acids. He elucidates how insulin resistance in fat cells leads to increased release of fatty acids, exacerbating fat accumulation in the liver.Dr. Bikman discusses two primary pathways contributing to fatty liver disease: uptake of free fatty acids from adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, the process of synthesizing new fat within the liver.While elevated insulin primarily drives fat storage, Ben also addresses the independent roles of fructose and alcohol in promoting liver fat accumulation. Fructose metabolism in the liver and alcohol-induced disruptions in fat metabolism contribute significantly to fatty liver disease, even without the direct influence of insulin.Finally, Dr. Bikman explores strategies for preventing or reversing fatty liver disease, emphasizing the importance of controlling carbohydrate intake to lower insulin levels and restrict fructose consumption. He contrasts pharmaceutical interventions with lifestyle modifications, advocating for dietary changes as a more effective and sustainable approach.Throughout the Metabolic Classroom lecture, Ben empowers his audience with a deeper understanding of the metabolic underpinnings of fatty liver disease, encouraging them to share this knowledge and take proactive steps toward metabolic health.#insulinresistance #metabolicsyndrome #metabolichealth #type2diabetes #type1diabetes #weightloss #intermittentfasting #intermittantfasting #fasting #lowcarb Learn more at: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this lecture from the Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Ben Bikman, a biomedical scientist specializing in metabolism, delves into various strategies for fat loss.He begins by highlighting the importance of understanding fat tissue dynamics, focusing particularly on hormones, drugs, and sex-specific effects. The main topic for the lecture is strategies for fat loss, which Bikman divides into three categories: drugs, surgical interventions, and lifestyle changes.Bikman briefly revisits the topic of drugs for fat loss, emphasizing GLP-1 agonists and their mechanism of action in reducing cravings. He discusses their efficacy but also mentions potential side effects such as sexual dysfunction and the risk of regaining fat mass after discontinuation.Moving on to surgical interventions, Bikman provides detailed explanations of bariatric surgeries including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Ben discusses their mechanisms, benefits, drawbacks, and potential complications, shedding light on the complexity and consequences of these procedures.Next, Bikman explores liposuction, highlighting its cosmetic nature and its limited impact on metabolic health. He explains how liposuction removes fat cells from subcutaneous fat depots, which may lead to a rebound effect as remaining fat cells compensate by hypertrophying.The lecture’s focus then shifts to lifestyle changes, particularly exercise and nutrition. Bikman emphasizes that exercise should be pursued for health and strength rather than solely for weight loss. He stresses the importance of nutrition in fat loss, advocating for strategies that prioritize lowering insulin levels through carbohydrate control, prioritizing protein, and not fearing dietary fat.Bikman underscores the significance of managing insulin levels as a primary step in fat loss, followed by potential calorie control through structured fasting if necessary. He discusses the metabolic advantages of lowering insulin, including increased metabolic rate and ketone production.Finally, Dr. Bikman briefly mentions alternate methods like sauna and cold plunge therapy, suggesting their potential contribution to fat loss, although empirical evidence is lacking. He concludes by emphasizing the importance of shrinking fat cells through proper lifestyle strategies, promoting overall metabolic health.Throughout the lecture, Bikman’s teaching style is engaging and informative, providing insights into the complex interplay of hormones, physiology, and behavior in fat metabolism and weight management. Learn more at: https://www.insuliniq.comDon't forget to like, share, and subscribe for more insightful lectures from Professor Ben Bikman in the Metabolic Classroom series! Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this episode of the metabolic classroom, Dr. Ben Bikman takes the helm to explore the multifaceted role of fat tissue as an endocrine organ. He begins by challenging the conventional view of fat tissue as merely a storage depot for energy, emphasizing its crucial role in hormone production and regulation.Dr. Bikman introduces the concept of endocrine organs and highlights the often overlooked status of fat tissue as one such organ. He discusses how fat tissue releases hormones into the bloodstream, exerting significant metabolic effects throughout the body.The lecture delves into sex-specific differences in fat distribution and hormone production, with a focus on the influence of estrogen on fat storage and hormone levels in women. Dr. Bikman further explores the impact of menopause on fat tissue and hormonal changes, shedding light on how shifts in hormone production affect metabolism and fertility.Leptin, the first discovered fat-derived hormone, is dissected in detail by Dr. Bikman, who elucidates its role in appetite regulation, metabolic processes, and fertility. He discusses how excess fat can lead to leptin resistance, compromising its effectiveness in metabolic regulation.Other hormones such as adiponectin, estrogen, TNF alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and T3 are also explored for their metabolic effects and their association with fat cell size.The lecture concludes with a focus on brown adipose tissue and its production of T3, highlighting its role in regulating metabolic rate, particularly in response to stimuli like cold exposure.In summary, Dr. Bikman provides a comprehensive overview of the endocrine functions of adipose tissue, emphasizing the intricate relationship between fat cells and hormone regulation, with implications for metabolism, inflammation, and overall health.00:01 - Introduction to Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ01:07 - Sex-Specific Differences in Fat Distribution03:21 - Impact of Menopause on Fat Tissue and Hormone Production05:45 - Endocrine Effects of Fat Distribution07:58 - Role of Fat Tissue in Aromatization and Estrogen Production10:13 - Impact of Fat Cell Size on Hormone Production12:24 - Detailed Exploration of Leptin14:45 - Examination of Adiponectin and its Metabolic Effects18:17 - TNF Alpha and its Impact on Inflammation and Insulin Resistance21:05 - Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and its Implications for Clotting22:16 - Brown Adipose Tissue and its Production of T324:30 - Conclusion and Summary#insulinresistance #metabolicsyndrome #metabolichealth #type2diabetes #type1diabetes #weightloss #intermittentfasting #intermittantfasting #fasting #lowcarb Learn more at: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Professor Ben Bikman, a biomedical scientist specializing in diabetes, metabolism, and fat tissue, delves deeper into the topic of fat tissue, focusing specifically on its storage locations and the factors influencing them.Dr. Bikman emphasizes the complexity and nuance of fat tissue beyond its commonly recognized role in energy storage, insulation, and cushioning, highlighting its function as an endocrine organ that produces various hormones and signals.Ben begins by discussing the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which plays a crucial role in fat storage by pulling fats off circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the bloodstream. He explains how the expression and activity of LPL are influenced by factors such as insulin, exercise, and sex hormones, particularly testosterone and estrogen.The lecture explores how sex differences play a significant role in fat storage patterns, with males tending to store fat centrally around the abdomen due to increased LPL expression induced by testosterone, while females typically store more fat in subcutaneous depots such as the breasts, buttocks, and hips, influenced by estrogen. Ben also discusses the impact of menopause on fat storage, noting shifts towards central fat deposition in women as estrogen levels decline.Additionally, Dr. Bikman touches on the effects of aging on fat storage, explaining how fat cell number tends to plateau in adulthood and decrease in older age, leading to hypertrophy (enlargement) of existing fat cells and potentially ectopic fat deposition in organs like the liver and pancreas.The lecture concludes with Ben addressing the difference between hyperplasia (increased fat cell number) and hypertrophy (increased fat cell size) in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots, emphasizing the metabolic implications of storing fat in different locations. He also briefly mentions the influence of non-caloric signals, such as chemicals leached from plastics, on fat cell growth.Overall, the lecture provides a comprehensive overview of the multifaceted nature of fat tissue storage, highlighting the interplay of hormonal, physiological, and environmental factors in shaping fat distribution and its metabolic consequences.Learn more at: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this week's episode of the Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Bikman delves into the complexities of fat tissue. The lecture aims to shift perspectives on fat beyond mere energy storage, highlighting its multifaceted roles in the body. Dr. Bikman encourages listeners to not only absorb the information but also become teachers themselves, spreading these insights and implementing practical changes.The lecture begins with an exploration of the evolutionary role of fat, debunking misconceptions and emphasizing its importance in survival and early development. Dr. Bikman discusses theories like the expensive tissue hypothesis, shedding light on why humans are born with fat and its significance in brain growth.Moving on, Dr. Bikman dives into the different types of fat and their storage mechanisms. He explains the distinctions between subcutaneous and visceral fat, emphasizing their impact on metabolic health. Additionally, he explores the metabolic behavior of fat tissue, distinguishing between white, brown, and beige fat and their implications for energy expenditure and storage.The lecture concludes with a discussion on the genetic and environmental factors influencing fat storage. Dr. Bikman highlights the role of insulin and energy availability in fat accumulation, as well as the impact of diet and environmental chemicals. By understanding these factors, listeners gain insights into managing weight and promoting metabolic health. Until next time in the Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Bikman reminds his audience: more knowledge, better health.#insulinresistance #metabolicsyndrome #metabolichealth #type2diabetes #type1diabetes #weightloss #intermittentfasting #intermittantfasting #fasting Learn more at: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In this week's episode of the Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Ben Bikman welcomes viewers to a discussion on commonly used cardiometabolic and weight loss drugs. The focus of this particular lecture is on drugs targeting heart disease, a leading cause of mortality globally. Dr. Bikman acknowledges the controversy surrounding cardiovascular drugs due to the severity of heart disease and the passionate advocacy for drug therapies.The lecture begins with an overview of two main categories of cardiovascular drugs: those addressing blood pressure and those targeting cholesterol levels. Dr. Bikman explains the significance of blood pressure in cardiovascular health, emphasizing its correlation with heart attacks and hypertension. He delves into the physiological effects of high blood pressure, likening it to over-inflating a balloon and causing stress and damage to the inner lining of blood vessels.Moving on to drugs that control blood pressure, Dr. Bikman highlights the potential impact on insulin resistance and mitochondrial function, crucial factors in heart disease risk. He discusses common classes of antihypertensive drugs such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics, detailing their mechanisms and side effects.Transitioning to cholesterol-lowering drugs, Dr. Bikman discusses the controversy surrounding the assumption that cholesterol is solely responsible for heart disease. He challenges the oversimplified view of LDL cholesterol's role in plaque formation and suggests alternative paradigms, including the immune response to infections in blood vessels.Dr. Bikman then discusses two classes of anti-cholesterol medications: PCSK9 inhibitors and statins. He explains how PCSK9 inhibitors increase LDL receptor expression to enhance LDL clearance and discusses potential side effects such as worsened insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, he explores the mechanism of statins in reducing cholesterol production and addresses controversies surrounding their use, including potential risks of developing type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.#insulinresistance #metabolicsyndrome #metabolichealth #type2diabetes #type1diabetes #weightloss #intermittentfasting #intermittantfasting #fasting #lowcarb Learn more at: Insulin IQ Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In today's lecture, Dr. Bikman guides his audience through a comprehensive exploration of anti-diabetic drugs, shedding light on their mechanisms, implications, and the broader context of diabetes management. Kicking off the discussion, Dr. Bikman elucidated the prevalent glucose-centric paradigm in understanding diabetes, emphasizing its limitations, particularly in discerning the nuanced differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. He underscored the pivotal role of insulin deficiency in type 1 and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, setting the stage for a deeper dive into the intricacies of anti-diabetic medications.The lecture commenced with an in-depth analysis of metformin, a cornerstone in diabetes treatment known for its efficacy in improving insulin sensitivity. Despite its widespread use, Dr. Bikman elucidated the persistent ambiguity surrounding metformin's cellular mechanisms, particularly concerning its impact on mitochondrial function. While acknowledging its beneficial effects, such as reducing hepatic glucose production, Dr. Bikman also highlighted the drug's gastrointestinal side effects and its potential to blunt mitochondrial adaptations to exercise.Transitioning to insulin therapy, Dr. Bikman delineated its indispensable role in type 1 diabetes management but cautioned against its potential risks in type 2 diabetes, including weight gain and heightened cardiovascular, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease risks. He delved into the nuances of insulin secretagogues and thiazolidinediones, discussing their mechanisms and associated complications, such as increased cardiovascular risk and adverse effects on adipogenesis.Further, Dr. Bikman explored GLP-1 agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, elucidating their mechanisms of action and potential side effects, including an elevated risk of urinary tract infections with SGLT2 inhibitors and heightened ketogenesis. Before concluding, he briefly touched on amylin analogs, adding another dimension to the multifaceted landscape of anti-diabetic medications.Dr. Bikman's lecture provided a comprehensive understanding of anti-diabetic drugs, transcending the traditional glucose-centric perspective and highlighting the complexities inherent in diabetes management. By navigating through the intricate mechanisms and implications of these medications, he empowered his audience with invaluable insights to navigate the complexities of diabetes treatment effectively.#insulinresistance #metabolicsyndrome #metabolichealth #type2diabetes #type1diabetes #weightloss #intermittentfasting #intermittantfasting #fasting Learn more at: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In today's episode of The Metabolic Classroom, Dr. Ben Bikman delves into the fascinating topic of GLP-1, a hormone of significant interest in metabolic research. Dr. Bikman sets the stage by expanding the discussion beyond GLP-1 to include other incretions, defining them as a class of hormones produced by the small intestine. These hormones play crucial roles in nutrient metabolism, satiety, and hunger regulation.The discovery of incretions stemmed from observations following gastric bypass surgeries, where elevated levels of these hormones were found in the bloodstream, leading to improvements in diabetes. Dr. Bikman highlights GLP-1's well-known effect on insulin secretion and glucagon suppression, which contribute to its ability to rapidly correct high glucose levels and improve diabetes. However, he notes the ongoing debate regarding GLP-1's direct insulin secretagogue effect in humans, contrasting findings from cell culture and animal models with recent human studies.Moving beyond GLP-1, Dr. Bikman discusses other incretions like GIP, PYY, and cholecystokinin, outlining their roles in glucose regulation, appetite control, and digestion. He explores the pharmacological applications of GLP-1 agonists in managing diabetes and obesity, detailing various drugs and their mechanisms of action. Furthermore, he touches upon natural methods to enhance GLP-1 secretion, including dietary factors like protein, fat, and sugars. The session concludes with insights into the live Q&A session, emphasizing the dynamic interaction between science and audience participation in The Metabolic Classroom.Learn more at:  Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
Weight Loss Drugs

Weight Loss Drugs


Beginning with a discussion on the evolution of these medications, Dr. Bikman emphasizes their significance in combating obesity-related health issues. He proceeds to analyze the mechanisms of popular weight loss drugs, such as Orlistat, Phentermine, and the combination of Phentermine with Topiramate, elucidating how each functions to aid weight loss.While highlighting the benefits, Dr. Bikman doesn’t shy away from detailing the potential side effects, ensuring a comprehensive understanding for the audience. Moreover, he shares an intriguing scientific fact regarding lactate’s role in fat metabolism, adding depth to the discussion. Throughout, Dr. Bikman maintains a balance between scientific evidence and personal insight, fostering an engaging and informative session.In discussing liraglutide’s mechanism of action, Dr. Bikman reveals its role as a GLP-1 receptor agonist, mimicking the actions of the incretin GLP-1. He then previews next week’s class dedicated to incretins and their use in weight loss drugs, including medications like wegovy and ozempic.Liraglutide primarily promotes weight loss by reducing gastric emptying, leading to prolonged feelings of fullness and decreased appetite. Additionally, it inhibits glucagon, lowering blood glucose levels and subsequently increasing metabolic rate and fat burning. Dr. Bikman notes common side effects such as gastrointestinal discomfort and hints at potential risks of thyroid tumors associated with GLP-1 agonists.Ben transitions to discussing semaglutide, another GLP-1 receptor agonist, and its similar effects on weight loss and side effects, including the possibility of ileus. He also touches on metformin’s off-label use for weight loss, its mechanisms involving AMPK activation and ATP inhibition, and its potential interference with exercise-induced mitochondrial benefits.Learn more at: Insulin IQ Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
In today's Metabolic Classroom, the discussion centers on addressing insulin resistance, marking the final part of a series that viewers are encouraged to catch up on if they haven't already. Previous episodes have delved into the nature, origins, and implications of insulin resistance, highlighting its association with various diseases. Despite the somber tone of these revelations, the current discussion offers a ray of hope by focusing on solutions to this pervasive issue, emphasizing its solvability and preventability.Before delving into strategies for combating insulin resistance, Dr. Bikman takes a moment to outline methods for assessing one's own insulin resistance status, recognizing limitations in traditional approaches that solely focus on glucose levels. He stresses the importance of understanding insulin's broader role beyond glucose regulation, highlighting the significance of elevated insulin levels as an early indicator of resistance. The discussion moves to practical considerations, such as interpreting fasting insulin levels, with values below six suggesting insulin sensitivity, while higher readings may indicate varying degrees of resistance, requiring further evaluation.Learn more: Hosted on Acast. See for more information.
Comments (7)

Maria Prado

I took faseolamina the withe been stuff... I had lower glucose like 10mdl but a lot of gas.. I dont like that one

Jun 28th

Maria Prado

😁Great topic 💪❤️thanks

Jun 9th

Maria Prado

Amazing.. What you are is what you burn 💪👌

Jun 2nd

Maria Prado

Just love it becouse i had the same problem as the last question about one meal a day and long dawn phenomenon.. I just change the time of my meal and get lot better i think was becouse i sleep better and lower my cortisol...just Guessing

May 27th

Maria Prado

Ualll.. That is gold

May 19th

Maria Prado

So good information.. Gratitude for your share 🙏 super fan here ❤️

May 18th

Maria Prado

I was worry about cortisol and not anymore thanks 💪🙏

May 13th