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Epigenetics

Epigenetics

2022-08-1545:51

This episode of Have You Herd? is brought to you by the AABP Genetics and Genomics Committee. Our guest host is Dr. Stewart Bauck, and he is joined by Dr. Jack Britt to discuss epigenetics. Epigenetics is part of the normal and natural genetic process where certain genes are turned on or off. Britt discusses how environmental impacts can impact these processes of methylation or acetylation of histone proteins. A primary example is heat stress. Studies have shown that heat stress in a pregnant dam can affect three generations by impacting the cow, the fetus and the gonads of the fetus.  Another example given was the stress at weaning or transitioning to a grain-based diet can affect the expression of certain sequences of genes. We discuss areas where veterinarians can become involved in these discussions with clients. Looking at periods of stress in an animal’s life can impact not only the animal during the stressful event but the ability of the animal to have optimal health and productivity into the future as well as their offspring if they are pregnant or a breeding animal. Time periods that are commonly stressful events include the dry period or dry period length, transition periods, and heat stress events. Veterinarians should work with their clients to minimize these stressful events.  Genomics is a rapidly expanding area of research and development in the beef and dairy industry. The ability to detect sequence changes as well as how methylation or acetylation impacts gene expression as well as how to detect these changes continues to be developed. If you are interested in learning more about this topic, we encourage you to view the resources on the AABP Genetics and Genomics Committee page. AABP members who are interested in joining the Genetics and Genomics Committee can contact the committee by visiting this page.  Relevant papers:Metabolic and antioxidant status during transition is associated with changes in the granulosa cell transcriptome in the preovulatory follicle in high-producing dairy cows at the time of breedingWaleed F.A. Marei, Jessie De Bie, Inne Xhonneux, Silke Andries, Jack H. Britt, Jo L.M.R. LeroyJ Dairy Sci, Vol 105, Issue 8, August 2022
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by the associate editors for The Bovine Practitioner in this podcast to discuss the peer-reviewed journal published by AABP. The associate editors are Drs. Sarah Capik, Virginia Fajt, Miles Theurer and Aurora Villarroel. The Bovine Practitioner has been published by AABP continuously since 1967. There have been two previous editors of the journal, Dr. Eric Williams and Dr. Robert Smith. The journal is open access using the online journal system (OJS) through an agreement with Texas A&M University Libraries, and all volumes have been scanned into PDFs and are searchable at the article level. Access the journal by clicking this link. Listeners can register on the site to receive notifications of new publications as well as indicate if they are willing to serve as a peer reviewer for the journal. The Bovine Practitioner publishes articles that are relevant to the practicing cattle veterinarian and accepts submissions that are original research, descriptive studies (case reports, case series, innovative techniques) and review articles. The submission and peer-review process are managed online through the OJS and the journal now publishes accepted manuscripts at the article level. AABP does not charge submission, page or publication fees to authors. Practicing veterinarians are encouraged to partner with academic or industry colleagues to publish in the journal for assistance with study design and statistics. Associate editors are also willing to assist inexperienced authors who need information on publishing as well as providing contacts for collaborating with projects. We encourage all authors to read the author guidelines to ensure submissions are in compliance with general guidelines, formatting and submitting papers that are masked for the blinded peer-review process. Author guidelines can be found at this link. 
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Sarah Erickson from Feedlot Health Management Services Inc., by Telus Agriculture, in Alberta, Canada. Sarah is currently enrolled in the Master of Science in large animal clinical sciences at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, and hopes to obtain her veterinary degree after completion of her masters. Lameness is a significant issue in feedlot cattle accounting for approximately 30% of all treatments in feedlot cattle, second only to bovine respiratory disease, and affecting over 3% of Western Canadian feedlot cattle. Cattle affected by lameness weigh close to 50 lbs less than healthy pen mates, but the economic impact is also influenced by treatment costs, labor, mortality and salvage slaughter. We discuss the most common conditions causing lameness in feedlot cattle which include toe tip necrosis, foot rot, arthritis, laminitis and digital dermatitis. There are unique challenges in managing these disease in feedlot versus dairy cattle due to the differences in husbandry between the two industries, but in both circumstances, lameness in cattle impact health, production and welfare. Erickson reviews a recent study performed on over 1.7 million head of Western Canadian evaluating the epidemiology of digital dermatitis, foot rot and toe tip necrosis. She discusses the risk factors for each disease such as sourcing, age, sex, feedlot size and days on feed. Veterinarians can play an integral role in assisting feedlots with development of protocols for diagnosis and treatment of lameness conditions, reviewing pain management and euthanasia protocols for affect cattle, development of prevention programs, and evaluation of the incidence in client yards to improve prevention and treatment programs. If you are interested in lameness and want to volunteer, a great place to start is the AABP lameness committee which can be found on this page. AABP committee resource files can be found at this link.  Relevant publications:Diagnosis and therapy of feedlot lamenessMichael D. ApleyProceedings of the 2020 AABP Recent Graduate Conferencehttps://doi.org/10.21423/aabppro20207968Incidence of lameness and association of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on six commercial beef feedlotsShane P. Terrell, Christopher D. Reinhardt, Connie K. Larson, Christopher I. Vahl, and Daniel U. Thomson JAVMA, Vol. 250, No. 4.https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.250.4.437Perception of lameness management, education, and effects on animal welfare of feedlot cattle by consulting nutritionists, veterinarians, and feedlot managersS.P. Terrell, D.U. Thompson, C.D. Reinhardt, M. D. Apley, C.K. Larson, K.R. Stackhouse-LawsonThe Bovine Practitioner, Vol. 48, No. 1.https://doi.org/10.21423/bovine-vol48no1p53-60    
 AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Drs. Andy Lefeld, Justine Britten, and Allan Britten in this podcast brought to you by the AABP Milk Quality and Udder Health Committee. You can find information about the Milk Quality and Udder Health Committee on this page and find all AABP committee resources at this link. The Brittens manage Udder Health Systems with labs located in Washington, Utah and Idaho. Lefeld is a member of the Milk Quality and Udder Health Committee and a veterinarian at Maria Stein Animal Clinic in Maria Stein, Ohio, providing milk quality services to dairy farms.  Mastitis is the most costly disease in the dairy industry with an economic impact estimated at $2 billion annually. Our guests discuss the types of mastitis pathogens and the importance of identifying the pathogens causing mastitis on dairy farms to know if the infections are due to contagious or environmental pathogens. It is also important to obtain diagnostics to the species level for some pathogens. Monitoring pathogens can include bulk tank cultures, individual cow cultures, or string sampling. We discuss how veterinarians can get involved in mastitis diagnostic programs, including setting up and monitoring on-farm culture programs, in-clinic milk quality laboratories or utilizing an outside diagnostic lab. There are several newer technologies that labs now provide including PCR, MALDI-TOF, and chromogenic agars. Veterinarians have the opportunity to assist producers in developing diagnostic programs to manage mastitis on the dairy farm. We also discuss that a diagnostic test should be utilized if the results will alter an intervention, either treatment or prevention. Antimicrobial sensitivities on mastitis pathogens are not routinely recommended since an antimicrobial sensitivity test is unlikely to change the intervention on the farm due to the limited number of intramammary tubes available and the lack of break points for most intramammary antimicrobials. Finally, it is important for veterinarians to develop quality control programs for both in-house cultures as well as cultures from on-farm programs. One such program is the QMPS program from Cornell University. Veterinarians should discuss with their dairy farmers how they can utilize diagnostic testing as a part of a total milk quality control program.
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by three AABP members on this episode of Have You Herd? where we discuss decision-making for utilizing extra-label drug use, working with producers for ensuring appropriate oversight of antimicrobial use, and utilizing resources from the Food Animal Avoidance Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD). The three guests are current AABP Committee on Pharmaceutical and Biologic Issues members including Chair, Dr. Kevin Jacque from The Ohio State University, Dr. Virginia Fajt from Texas A&M University and Dr. Fiona Maunsell from the University of Florida and FARAD. We start the conversation by discussing considerations for extra-label drug use in cattle, including the different production classes of beef and dairy cattle that should be considered and how this use may affect the determination of a withdrawal interval. The veterinarian of record is the party responsible for ensuring appropriate oversight of drug use and assigning that withdrawal interval, and our guests discuss that veterinarians should take pride in being responsible for extra-label drug use. Dr. Maunsell discusses the FARAD program, where it receives its funding and the fact it is an advisory, not regulatory, program. We discuss how veterinarians can improve the accuracy of information received from FARAD by filling out their online submission entirely and accurately. The group also discusses inadvertent prohibited drug use and how to communicate with FARAD to assign a withdrawal time as well as working with clients to ensure we correct the errors that led to the inadvertent use.  LINKS: Extra-label drug use regulations:https://www.ecfr.gov/current/title-21/chapter-I/subchapter-E/part-530Definition of food-producing animals:https://www.fda.gov/media/70157/download (see p. 29)Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank:http://www.farad.org/AABP VCPR Guidelines:https://aabp.org/resources/aabp_guidelines/VCPRGuideline_032020.pdfAABP Antimicrobial Stewardship Guidelines:https://aabp.org/resources/AABP_Guidelines/AntimicrobialStewardship0322Final.pdf 
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. Murray Gillies, AABP Board of Directors representative to District 12, and Dr. Charlie Gardner, chair of the AABP Mental Health Task Force, for this episode to discuss mental health and well-being initiatives being developed by AABP.  Gillies proposed the creation of a Mental Health Task Force to provide support to AABP members and create resources to aid in the prevention of mental illness and promotion of mental health. We discuss that there is a stigma associated with mental illness and normalizing the conversations around mental health can support our colleagues in bovine practice. Prevention of mental illness and improving our own mental health is important and we discuss various tips for preventive medicine for ourselves as well as tips on how to find a counselor. The AABP Foundation has recently supported the Veterinary Hope Foundation through a $25,000 donation, to fund the creation of peer support groups that are available at no cost to AABP members to join. Find out more information about the Veterinary Hope Foundation at this link and the partnership with AABP and how to join on this page. AABP members who want to support mental health initiatives through the AABP Foundation can donate to this fund on this page. We encourage all members to take the AVMA QPR training program to recognize and assist colleagues who may be struggling. Find out information about this resource on the AVMA Well-Being page. AABP also encourages members to consider submitting a story to the Humans of AABP Facebook page by contacting fred@aabp.org or gwren@aabp.org. The intent of the series is to normalize conversations around mental health and support each other. Stories can be posted anonymously. Resources:AABP Mental Health Resources pageMental Health in the HeadcatchJosh TanguayProceedings of the 53rd Annual AABP Conference Suicide Prevention Hotline NumbersUS 800-273-8255Canada 833-456-4566 Dr. Charlie Gardnercharlesegardner@ptd.net717-816-4246     
Bovine Neosporosis

Bovine Neosporosis

2022-07-0427:38

AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. BJ Newcomer from the VERO branch of Texas A&M University to discuss abortions due to the protozoal parasite, Neospora caninum. Neosporosis is the most commonly diagnosed cause of cattle abortions and is seen in beef and dairy herds. Transmission of the etiologic agent can be exogenous through a canid host that ingests the cysts from aborted tissues and then passes them in feces to be ingested by cows, or vertically from dam to fetus in utero. An adult cow can pass Neospora to the fetus which can result in a positive calf that is born normally and is a risk for future reproductive failure, or result in an abortion, typically occurring in the 4 to 7-month gestation window. Newcomer reminds our listeners to work with their diagnostic labs to facilitate testing of aborted fetuses as well as testing adult cows for Neospora antibodies through serum ELISA testing. Control measures involve culling positive animals, aborting animals, and controlling fecal contamination from dogs in feed ingredients. We also discuss capturing the genetic value of positive cows through implementing advanced reproductive technologies and ensuring recipient animals are Neospora-negative.  This episode of Have You Herd was brought to our listeners by the AABP Reproduction Committee. Gingrich suggests that AABP members who want to volunteer to seek out a committee to join by going to the committee menu at https://aabp.org. 
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by AABP Vice President and Preconference Seminar Chair Dr. Michael Capel to discuss the preconference seminars that will be offered at the upcoming AABP Annual Conference in Long Beach, Calif. The seminars are held Sunday through Wednesday Sept. 18-21, 2022 prior to the conference Sept. 22-24. We discuss how the seminars we took during our careers tremendously impacted our practice lives, both in continuing education content teaching us skills to advance our practice, as well as networking and meeting experts and colleagues in the field. Preconference seminars can be added to a regular conference registration, or you can sign up for a seminar registration to take a seminar and then send another member in your practice to the conference sessions. Descriptions of the preconference seminars can be found at this link. A total of 14 preconference seminars are available and each will be approved for 8 hours per day of continuing education. Nine of the seminars are new or reworked versions of previous seminars so there should be something of interest to all beef and dairy veterinarians. Register for the conference and seminars on this page. Preconference seminars with an inadequate number of participants are subject to cancellation up until August 12, so enroll today! Seminars will either be held in the Long Beach Convention Center of the Hyatt headquarters hotel. Reserve your room in the AABP hotel block at this link. 
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by the 2022 AABP program chair and AABP President-Elect Dr. Sandra Godden, and AABP President Dr. Pat Gorden, to discuss the 55th AABP Annual Conference September 22-24, 2022, in Long Beach, Calif. The theme for the conference is a nod to our desire to get together as cattle veterinarians again after two years of challenges for “Gathering the Herd”.  Gorden discusses the board’s decision to offer the conference in-person only and the challenges of continuing to offer a hybrid conference in terms of labor resources and financial risks to the organization.  Godden discusses the keynote address from Dr. Vernard Hodges with the topic suggestion from the Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Task Force. We will also welcome introductions from the 2023 AABP Vice-President candidates, Dr. Jessica Gernhard and Dr. Callie Willingham. Each of us discusses session highlights and the wide variety of talks which are geared toward continuing to provide the major focus of AABP which is providing educational resources for the practicing veterinarian. New this year will be a joint beef/dairy session discussing beef on dairy strategies, feed additives to decrease enteric methane production, antimicrobial use monitoring strategies, and plant-based and lab-grown meat alternatives. AABP would like to thank all of the sponsors of our conference, including the sponsors of our social events by Boehringer-Ingelheim, Diamond-V, Endovac, and Zoetis. Find the schedule and registration information at this link. AABP asks our attendees to please utilize the AABP hotel block to decrease the financial risk the organization assumes when contracting conference locations. Book your hotel rooms through our secure housing link found on this page. We also encourage members to donate to the Amstutz Scholarship Auction through this portal. Donations of equipment, products, artwork, vacations, books, custom items and gift baskets are all encouraged. The Mark Hopkins Bronze Bull will also be available to purchase again this year and the Amstutz Scholarship Committee and AABP Foundation Board of Directors encourages groups to form consortiums from alumni groups, districts, and others to increase the bid for auction items. Establishing a consortium is easy by using this online link.  The 2022 Program Committee invites you to attend the conference in Long Beach, Calif. September 22-24, 2022 to gather the herd!  
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by the “father and grandfather of cow comfort”, Dr. Gordie Jones. Jones has developed his bovine veterinary career into a cow comfort consultant, designing facilities to maximize cow comfort. Today we discuss heat stress in dairy cows and how to cool cows in a variety of facilities and environments. We discuss that cows are happiest at around 40 degrees F and cooling cows and their environment is critical to manage the effects of heat stress which includes decreased intakes, reproductive efficiency and milk production losses. Jones states that reproductive losses are hidden and typically are equal to the losses that are evident from decreased milk production. It is critical that dairy farms soak cows in the holding pen, exiting the parlor and in feed lanes. Fans should provide 5-7 mph range over cows and are utilized to move air in the environment after evaporatively cooling cows with soakers. A good rule of thumb is to have cows away from beds or feed no more than 3.5 hours per day. Maintaining dry matter intakes is critical to maintaining production, and Jones reminds our listeners that fresh air brought to the cows will increase intakes and make sure that cows receive more than 50% of dry matter when exiting the parlor after the morning milking. We discuss different types of facilities that can be designed to manage heat stress and improve ventilation as well as evaluating cows' access to water. Jones encourages veterinarians to expand your impact on dairy farms through observation and to continue to speak for the cow and work with dairy producers to maximize cow comfort. Links: Cargill Heat Stress Relief Handbook – Jeff BroseElanco Dairy Heat Abatement Manual All season hybrid barn video Developing systems to minimize heat stress in dairy cattleJohn Smith, Mike Brouk, Joe Harner   
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. Dan Thomson from the Department of Animal Science at Iowa State University to discuss the effects and mitigation strategies resulting from heat stress in feedlot cattle. We discuss that heavy and black-hided cattle are at increased risk of heat stress, and control strategies should first target these groups of cattle when the temperature-humidity index (THI) is greater than 70 degrees F. Thomson states that the first thing cattle will do when experiencing heat stress is stand up, pant and decrease intakes. Bedding placed in pens can reduce surface temperatures by 20-30 degrees F, and providing shade that moves with the sun will also help to cool cattle. Building mounds for cattle to be further away from surface heat and allow more exposure to moving air will also decrease heat stress in cattle. Thomson reminds our listeners that water is the most important nutrient to cattle, especially in times of heat stress events. Cattle will drink 3x dry matter intake normally, but during hot weather they will drink 5x dry matter intake. Ensuring access to clean water with adequate trough space is important. We also discuss removing barriers to airflow in feedlot pens and using low stress handling techniques or stopping all movements during times of intense heat stress. Thomson also discusses his television show Doc Talk which is available on RFD TV and has a wide audience for discussing issues important to cattle veterinarians and producers. Find show times or stream the show online at this link.  Links Dynamic Response Indicators of Heat Stress in Shaded and Non-shaded Feedlot Cattle, Part 1: Analyses of IndicatorsT.M. Brown-Brandl, R.A. Eigenberg, J.A. Nienaber, G.L. Hahn Influence of shade on panting score and behavioural responses of Bos taurus and Bos indicus feedlot cattle to heat loadA.M. Lees, J.C. Lees, V. Sejian, M.L. Sullican, J.B. GaughanIowa State University Managing Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle Resource 
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. Drew Magstadt from Iowa State University to discuss Johne's disease in beef cattle. Johne's disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis that studies have shown affects up to 50% of cow-calf herds, however a small percent of animals are infected (3% to 8%).  Magstadt discusses some of the unique challenges of combating this disease in cow-calf herds where calves are raised with the adult cows, contrasted with calf separation from the adult herd on dairy operations. Some of the frustrating problems when implementing a Johne's control program in beef herds include the chronicity of the disease and the limitations of the various tests that are available. We talk through the tests that are available for beef herds and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Testing options include fecal culture, fecal PCR, complement fixation and serum ELISA antibody testing. Magstadt discusses a retrospective study he performed from submissions at the Iowa State University Diagnostic Laboratory looking at serum ELISA and fecal PCR submissions from the same animal and then evaluating if the submissions were from herd surveillance or non-surveillance sampling. They compared serum ELISA S:P ratios with fecal PCR results and found that high positive S:P ratios were highly correlated with a positive fecal PCR, a medium positive S:P ratio showed about 50% of cattle shedding MAP in the feces, and a low positive S:P ratio typically had a negative fecal PCR result. This information can help producers making culling decisions. Submitting both serum and feces to the lab is a good idea so that additional tests can be completed without the need to collect additional samples from the herd. He suggests that veterinarians should work with producers to develop a control program and to talk to your diagnostic lab about testing options, sample processing and pooling samples. Veterinarians can also decrease the cost associated with testing in pooled samples by looking at body condition and fecal scores on cows as they are processed for sample collection and separate those samples from non-clinical cows. Magstadt also reminds our listeners that contamination can be a significant issue when collecting samples and veterinarians and processing crews should be aware of the possibility of contaminating multiple samples if care is not taken to ensure clean samples. Eliminating Johne's disease from a beef herd is a multi-year endeavor that requires a team effort from the diagnostic lab, veterinarian and producer that also requires instituting management practices to decrease the introduction and spread of the disease within a herd. 
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. Matt Quinn from Feedlot Health Management Services located in Alberta, Canada. Quinn has a PhD in ruminant nutrition from Texas A&M University and provides his expertise on what implants are and how they can be used in all sectors of the beef industry to improve average daily gain and feed efficiency. Quinn describes the different categories of implants which include estrogenic, androgenic and combination products. He also describes traditional implants with long-acting or extended-release formulations. We discuss the definition and importance of the term “implant pay-out” and the training and monitoring programs that veterinarians can review with the their clients and employees to consistently achieve the results desired. Quinn walks our listeners through the considerations for implementing implant programs for suckling calves, including heifers, stockers or backgrounders, and cattle on feed, both native beef, beef-on-dairy crosses and dairy breed animals. He reminds us that the return on implants is maximized with a sound nutrition program, but that in general, implants will always return an economic advantage to the producer and should be considered in all facets of the beef production cycle. LINKS:Evaluation of long-acting implant programs for calf-fed HolsteinsM.J. Quinn, C.G. Stamm, A.L. Schreck, S.L. Parr, C.W. Booker, S.J. Hannon, M.J. Corbin, R.D. Rademacher, M.L. MayApplied Animal Science, Vol. 36, Issue 2, August 2020 Anabolic implant strategies in beef productionS.L. ParrProceedings of the 3rd AABP Recent Graduate Conference, February 2020 FDA Letter to Industry on Beef Cattle Ear ImplantsDecember 2021 
Cattle Fever Ticks

Cattle Fever Ticks

2022-05-1650:04

AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by AABP member Dr. Dee Ellis, a veterinarian at Texas A&M University and who was previously the Texas state veterinarian.  Ellis discusses the Texas Cattle Fever tick, species Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus.He describes the history of the tick control program, which dates from more than 150 years ago with the quarantine zone in south Texas established in 1943. Currently,  more than 1 million acres are in the quarantine zone. The fever tick spreads the disease babesiosis which can cause severe disease in adult cattle with up to 90% mortality in naïve cattle. Calves have an innate immunity resulting in mild disease; however, recovered calves can have up to 50 pounds less weight at weaning. We discuss treatment options for cattle infested with the ticks which includes dipping with an organophosphate product or injectable avermectin products. Wildlife vectors remain a challenge and Ellis discusses management of wildlife and treatment of wildlife in pastures where cattle are raised. Ellis also reviews a recent research project that looked at varying doses of eprinomectin to establish if a longer treatment interval would control the ticks on exposed cattle. The results of the study found that Long Range® at the label dose will have a residual effect on preventing tick infestation by up to 123 days, and doubling the dose extends the effect up to 145 days after the last treatment. Research for controlling and treating the ticks is need which includes a better understanding of diagnostic methods for infested pastures, wildlife treatment options, biologic control agents and vaccines against babesiosis and the tick vector.  LINKS: Texas A&M University Department of Entomology Resourcehttps://entomology.tamu.edu/extension/cattle-fever-tick-information/Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Resource:https://agrilifeextension.tamu.edu/solutions/cattle-fever-tick/USDA Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program:https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/tick/downloads/bro-cft-treatment-options.pdf     
This edition of “Have you Herd” is sponsored by Lactipro. Lactipro harnesses the power of Mega e, a superior lactic acid utilizer, enabling beef and dairy producers to support healthy rumen function. Lactipro places a large number of Mega e into its native environment, the rumen, where it immediately begins targeting lactic acid. To learn more about the science behind Lactipro, visit https://msbiotec.com/lactipro. Our guest is Dr. Jane Leedle, a ruminant microbiologist. Leedle discusses her background and interest in environmental contamination research which led to her research in anaerobic bacteria and water quality. She eventually developed an interest in the cow’s rumen due to her research in anaerobic bacterial environments. We discuss the products of ruminant fermentation, known as volatile fatty acids, and the impact to the rumen microbiome in animals that are experiencing acute or sub-acute rumen acidosis due to higher concentrations of starches and grain in fed cattle and dairy cattle diets.  Leedle reminds us that lactic acid is 10 times more acidic than acetate, butyrate and proprionate which will lead to a reduction in pH along the entire GI tract and changes in the microbiome to lactic acid utilizers. Megaspheara elsdenii is an indigenous organism that utilizes lactic acid. This is an FDA approved direct fed microbial (DFM) that can be utilized to mitigate the effects of lactic acid production in high-concentrate diets. The discovery of the NCIMB 41125 strain of Mega e allowed for the commercial production of the bacteria that can be inoculated into the rumen to provide a substrate of bacteria to step-up cattle to higher concentrate diets and allow for conversion of lactic acid to butyrate. Learn more about the role of Megaspheara elsdenii as a direct-fed microbial by visiting the links below.Links:MS BIOTECH – https://msbiotec.com/lactiproChen L, Shen Y, Wang C, Ding L, Zhao F, Wang M, Fu J, Wang H. Megasphaera elsdenii Lactate Degradation Pattern Shifts in Rumen Acidosis Models. Front Microbiol. 2019 Feb 7;10:162. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00162\Arik HD, Gulsen N, Hayirli A, Alatas MS. Efficacy of Megasphaera elsdenii inoculation in subacute ruminal acidosis in cattle. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2019 Mar;103(2):416-426. doi:10.1111/jpn.13034.DeClerck JC, Wade ZE, Reeves NR, Miller MF, Johnson BJ, Ducharme GA, Rathmann RJ. Influence of Megasphaera elsdenii and feeding strategies on feedlot performance, compositional growth, and carcass parameters of early weaned, beef calves. Transl Anim Sci. 2020 Mar 17;4(2):txaa031. doi:10.1093/tas/txaa031.     
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. Brad White from the Beef Cattle Institute at Kansas State University.  White is also the chair of the AABP Veterinary Practice Sustainability Committee. In this episode, we discuss studies and surveys on the topic of rural food animal or mixed animal veterinarians, shortage situations,  job outlook and factors that impact recruitment and retention of veterinarians in cattle practice. According to AVMA data, less than 10% of veterinarians in the U.S. are employed in food animal practice in some capacity. A survey of Kansas cow-calf producers revealed that 60% of the producers felt there was a shortage of veterinarians, even if a veterinarian was in their county. We also discuss the Veterinary Training Program for Rural Kansas (VTPRK) which has resulted in retention of 80% of participants in food animal practice. Dr. Gabrielle Gilliam published a study in The Bovine Practitioner which evaluated factors that influence administrative personnel and veterinarian turnover and compensation packages. Relationships with colleagues, clients and owners, adequate feedback, a marketing plan, frequency of meetings and adequate time away from work were all factors that positively impacted job satisfaction and retention. Veterinary practice owners should have a long-range plan for recruiting veterinarians to their practice, which can include externships, adequate mentorship and feedback, comparable compensation packages and soliciting feedback from students to ensure their job offers are consistent with associate veterinarian needs. Gingrich suggests that practice owners and future owners should consider attending the AABP Manage Your Rural Practice for Success workshop series, which will be held October 27-29, 2022 in Ashland, Ohio.  Links: Gilliam, G., White, B., & Dodd, C. C. (2021). Factors influencing administrative personnel and veterinarian turnover and compensation packages in rural mixed-animal practices over a 5-year period . The Bovine Practitioner, 55(2), 108-114. https://doi.org/10.21423/bovine-vol55no2p108-114 A survey to identify factors associated with veterinarian and administrative staff turnover in rural veterinary practices, Proceedings of the 2020 AABP Annual Conference. AABP Manage Your Rural Practice for Success workshop registration Post your student externship program at this link.  
AABP Executive Director Dr.  Fred Gingrich is joined by recent graduate AABP member Dr. Katie Gutierrez , to talk about dairy veterinary practice. Gutierrez is a 2015 graduate of Washington State University and returned to New Mexico and eventually become a partner in Bovine Veterinary Alliance in Clovis, N.M. We discuss some of the unique characteristics of working with large dairy operations and calf ranches in the southwest U.S. and how she works with the employees on these operations to manage the care of their cattle. Gutierrez also has utilized many AABP resources such as participating in the practice management workshops to improve business management, and attending AABP recent graduate conferences to obtain CE and network with peers. We also discuss her perspectives on women in dairy practice, mentorship and recruitment and retention of veterinarians in rural bovine practice. She also discusses how she manages being a busy dairy practice owner and being a mom as well as how her practice has managed maternity leave.  Are you interested in taking the AABP Manage Your Rural Practice for Success seminar? Find out more information and register for the seminar at this link.   
In this episode, AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. Mike Kleinhenz and Dr. Hans Coetzee to discuss the potential uses of industrial hemp in cattle. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa)  contains many bioactive phytocannabinoids but is less than 0.3% THC which is the psychoactive cannabinoid found in marijuana. There is little research on the use of cannabis in cattle and today we discuss recent research published by Kleinhenz and Coetzee which was funded by the UDSA. The first study investigated the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiolic acid (CBDa) when fed to cattle at a specific dose. The results of this study demonstrated that CBDa was absorbed from the rumen and had a half-life of 14 hours. This research could be used to establish a withdrawal interval for cattle fed industrial hemp. We also discuss another study that evaluated lying behavior and biomarkers of stress and inflammation after feeding industrial hemp for 14 days. The results of this study demonstrated a significant difference in lying time, reduction in cortisol and a reduction in prostaglandin-E. These results indicate that industrial hemp may be useful as a treatment during times of stress, such as weaning, transportation, calving or arrival to feedyards. The last study discussed investigated the nutrient composition of industrial hemp and the various parts of the plant. This study demonstrated that industrial hemp and byproducts of the hemp industry may be useful as cattle feed, similar to other forages and byproducts we use to turn forages into high quality beef and dairy protein. Kleinhenz and Coetzee discuss that further research is needed in this area to evaluate the application of industrial hemp in cattle production systems. Publications: Kleinhenz, M.D., Magnin, G., Lin, Z. et al. Plasma concentrations of eleven cannabinoids in cattle following oral administration of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa). Sci Rep 10, 12753 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69768-4 Kleinhenz, M.D., Weeder, M., Montgomery, S. et al. Short term feeding of industrial hemp with a high cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) content increases lying behavior and reduces biomarkers of stress and inflammation in Holstein steers. Sci Rep 12, 3683 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-07795-z Michael D. Kleinhenz, Geraldine Magnin, Stee M. Ensley, Jason J. Griffin, John Goeser, Eva Lynch, Johann F. Coetzee, Nutrient concentrations, digestibility, and cannabinoid concentrations of industrial hemp plant components, Applied Animal Science, Volume 36, Issue 4, 2020, Pages 489-494, ISSN 2590-2865, https://doi.org/10.15232/aas.2020-02018   
AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by Dr. Elizabeth Homerosky to discuss a research project that was funded by the AABP Foundation through the Competitive Research Grant program. Her purpose in conducting this research trial was to investigate if administration of meloxicam on arrival to calves would decrease their ability to respond to a viral vaccine. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of meloxicam on vaccination response and health outcomes on a larger scale in a field setting. Calves enrolled in the study were from commercial farms in Alberta, Canada and were abruptly weaned and transported to the feedlot. Calves were randomly allotted to a control group which received a saline injection and a treatment group which received a commercial injectable meloxicam product. Antibody titers to BHV-1, BRSV, BPIV-3 and BCV were measured on arrival, day 7 and day 21. There was no statistical difference in titer response by treatment groups. Health outcomes demonstrated a numerical difference, but no statistical difference between treatment groups with four animals in the meloxicam-treated group pulled for BRD treatment. Homerosky discussed the challenges she identified in her study with the smaller treatment groups and low frequency of BRD in identifying a difference between the treatment groups, suggesting that more research is needed. The take-home message from her study demonstrated that administering meloxicam to calves on arrival concurrently with administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine does not impact antibody titer response to the vaccine. We also discuss the importance of the AABP Foundation in funding clinically relevant research for cattle veterinarians to use in their practice. We challenge listeners to donate to the Foundation to continue to support our efforts in funding this research. To donate to the AABP Foundation, visit this link. Projects that were funded by the Foundation through the Competitive Research Grants can be found on this page which includes links to publications and AABP conference presentations for completed projects.  Homerosky, Elizabeth R., Michael J. Jelinski, and Craig Dorin. "Impact of meloxicam on respiratory virus titers and health outcomes when administered concurrently with a modified live respiratory vaccine in abruptly weaned beef steers." Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 85.2 (2021): 101-105. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/cvma/cjvr/2021/00000085/00000002/art00003 
Just a signature, Doc

Just a signature, Doc

2022-04-0438:29

How can veterinarians assist dairy farmers from only requesting a signature on the VCPR form in the FARM program to developing a culture of continuous improvement? In this episode, AABP Executive Director Dr. Fred Gingrich is joined by AABP member Dr. Corale Dorn to discuss the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM) program.  Dorn discusses how she has implemented the tenets of the FARM program and included it as part of her billable services valued by her clients. Dorn graduated from Iowa State University in 2001 and is the owner of Dells Veterinary Services in Dell Rapids, S.D. Find out information about her practice at this link.  Dorn offers tips about completing the various checklists of the FARM program including identifying training opportunities during routine farm visits such as fresh cow protocols, euthanasia protocols, milking procedures and sick cow protocols and keeping the forms in your truck to sign off on them and include in the binder that is used by evaluators to ensure training is completed and protocols are updated. Dorn utilizes her team to assist with the services her practice provides to dairy and beef clients. She recommends veterinarians start with small bites and implement portions of the program during various times of the year and suggests that veterinarians consider becoming a second-party evaluator, so they are familiar with the audit process. She also discusses three models of charging for this service and incorporating it into your routine preventive medicine programs. By incorporating these protocols and procedures into your practice, veterinarians can move the FARM program beyond “just the signature”. Find out information about the NMPF FARM Program at this link. Resources that can be used by veterinarians and producers can be found in the FARM resource library found here.  AABP Guidelines and Position statements are used by NMPF FARM program and can be found under the About menu of the AABP website at this link. 
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