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FoundMyFitness

Author: Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D.

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Promoting strategies to increase healthspan, well-being, cognitive and physical performance through deeper understandings of biology.
52 Episodes
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This is a continuation of the last episode where Dr. Patrick took questions from newsletter subscribers around the on-going pandemic and tried to add value by talking about some of the recent research, among other things. Some of the topics that came up as a result of the questions submitted include: 00:04:03 - Data surrounding SARS-CoV-2 duration 00:06:37 - SARS-CoV-2 and potential immunity 00:11:35 - Some of the main factors known to play a role in immune variation 00:12:05 - What role genetics may play in immune function 00:14:27 - How previous viral exposure regulates immunity 00:15:05 - What cross immunity is and how it may be relevant for SARS-CoV-2 00:19:46 - Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 relevance 00:21:50 - How sleep is a key regulator of immune function 00:23:44 - Microbiome composition and immune function 00:28:31 - The differential effects of exercise intensity and duration on immune regulation 00:35:00 - How specific micronutrient inadequacies may promote immune dysregulation 00:47:20 - The effect of sex hormones on immune function 00:48:55 - How biological age age may play a role in immune regulation 00:49:46 - Controversy surrounding hypertension drugs such as ACE inhibitors and COVID-19 00:53:15 - ARDS and long-term lung damage Get our detailed summary, timeline, references and more on the FoundMyFitness episode page. This episode mentions a number of genetic polymorphisms that affect viral entry into the host cell, viral replication, host immune response ranging from cytokine production to viral-induced inflammation, SNPs that affect vitamin D levels and more. If you have used any consumer-based genetic testing services like 23andMe or Ancestry DNA we have a free viral report with these SNPs that you can check out. Learn more about this free report by clicking here. If you enjoy this content or any of the associated content, I can promise you that not only does the premium membership help bring MORE of it into the world in a broadly accessible format, that membership also comes with some really great benefits just for members. Members enjoy extra science emails twice per month, my monthly Question & Answer sessions, and a whole lot more. Support the show and get cool perks, that's the bottom line. Click here to learn more about premium membership.
In this episode, Dr. Rhonda Patrick discuss all things vitamin C. This episode covers oral bioavailability, intravenous vitamin C bioavailability, immune cell function, common cold and other viral infections, lung function, sepsis, pneumonia, inflammation, intravenous vitamin C and cancer, role in exercise, safety concerns, and so, so much more! Episode Timeline (abridged) 00:07:33 - Background on vitamin C 00:17:09 - Bioavailability of vitamin C [including dosing frequency] 00:22:53 - Vitamin C in the context of the common cold 00:28:09 - Vitamin C and lung function 00:35:54 - Vitamin C in the context of exercise [includes discussion of blunting of exercise adaptation] 00:45:51 - Vitamin C and fatty acid oxidation, including relevance in obesity 00:48:44 - Vitamin C and the brain 00:51:15 - Intravenous Vitamin C and its use for the treatment of certain kinds of infection 00:55:33 - Intravenous Vitamin C and cancer 00:57:40 - Effect of Vitamin C on fertility and reproduction 00:58:36 - Intravenous vitamin C and cardiovascular health 01:00:42 - Vitamin C and inflammation 01:02:38 - Vitamin C’s mechanisms of action 01:08:34 - Intravenous and Oral vitamin C safety 01:10:20 - Vitamin C intake and kidney stone risk 01:13:57 - Conclusions Get the full timeline, show summary, and all references for this episode by clicking here. View our new 28-page vitamin C overview article with over 190 references by clicking here. Premium membership: Members enjoy extra science emails twice per month, my monthly Question & Answer sessions, and a whole lot more. Support the show and get cool perks, that's the bottom line. Click here to learn more about premium membership.
This episode features Dr. Rhonda Patrick answering some of the most popular questions related to COVID-19. Look for another COVID-19-focused Q&A, coming soon. Some of the questions we selected from the batch to cover in this episode include: 00:02:36 - Are children and infants susceptible to COVID-19? Are some more susceptible to a more severe form of the disease? Are they carriers of it and possibly spreading transmission? 00:11:00 - Can you explain a little about hydroxychloroquine as possibly treating COVID-19? How does it work? Does it have to do with it being a zinc ionophore? 00:17:58 - Can you talk about quercetin's role as a zinc ionophore? 00:20:51 - Is there any indication blood type influences COVID-19 risk? 00:24:52 - Would you shed light on the conversation regarding vitamin D upregulating ACE2 receptors and vitamin D's influence on susceptibility to COVID19 infection? 00:43:45 - Can you discuss whether sauna use might help prevent COVID19? 00:52:55 - Is it true that high dose intravenous vitamin C might help treat COVID-19? 01:04:35 - What are your thoughts on melatonin being a potential factor for impacting the severity of the virus via its effects on inflammation and oxidative stress? To supplement this podcast Q&A, we’ve also made a video, summary, timeline, and references. You can view all of these on the episodes page on my website at foundmyfitness.com/episodes/covid-19-qa-1. If you enjoy this question & answer format, consider joining my premium membership community! Non-COVID-19 related Q&As happen monthly, you get access to an an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and much more more! Click here to learn about premium.
This episode was originally recorded for The Kevin Rose Show. Given some of the unique discussions we had, I had no choice but to ask the great Kevin Rose if he would let me re-post it over here on the FoundMyFitness podcast feed. A request which he graciously obliged. In this episode, we discuss... 00:08:00 - Omega-3 00:27:23 - Metformin 00:50:05 - Sulforaphane 01:06:57 - Magnesium L-Threonate 01:13:44 - Sauna 01:23:48 - New FMF Membership Learn more about the new premium membership. Learn more about sauna on our overview page. Learn more about metformin on our overview page. Learn more about Kevin Rose at his website or on his Twitter @kevinrose. You can also subscribe to either of his two podcasts: Kevin Rose Show Foundation by True Ventures
In this episode, Rhonda gives a summary of the science of resveratrol including its effects in animals and humans, mechanisms, and the bottom line on resveratrol supplementation and safety. Learn more about resveratrol at our comprehensive overview Relevant timepoints... 00:03:39 - Clinical effects of resveratrol in humans 00:04:10 - Effects on cardiovascular health biomarkers in humans 00:06:54 - Reduction of inflammatory biomarkers in humans 00:08:11 - Improved cognition and memory in clinical studies 00:11:23 - Healthspan improvements in animals 00:12:28 - Induction of longevity genes via xenohormesis 00:16:19 - Contradictory effects on exercise-associated benefits 00:20:34 - Various factors that affect resveratrol bioavailability 00:23:09 - Unintentional effects on drug metabolism Get earlier access with the premium members early access podcast feed, monthly Q&A sessions, an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and more! Click here to learn about premium. Click here to sign-up for a three issue trial of the bi-monthly science digest.
In this episode, Rhonda describes NAD+ (perhaps one of the most important molecules in the human body), why it is so important for aging, and why it declines with age. She discusses some of the popular NAD+ boosters like nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide, explains what the animal and human data say, discusses some of the concerns associated with using these boosters, and provides some concluding thoughts. Learn more about NAD+ Learn more about nicotinamide riboside Learn more about nicotinamide mononucleotide Learn more about sirtuins Get earlier access with the premium members early access podcast feed, monthly Q&A sessions, an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and more! Click here to get started.
David A. Sinclair, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and co-director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging. He is the co-founder of the journal Aging, where he serves as co-chief editor. Dr. Sinclair's work focuses on understanding the mechanisms that drive human aging and identifying ways to slow or reverse aging's effects. In particular, he has examined the role of sirtuins in disease and aging, with special emphasis on how sirtuin activity is modulated by compounds produced by the body as well as those consumed in the diet, such as resveratrol. His work has implications for human metabolism, mitochondrial and neurological health, and cancer. In this episode, we discuss... 00:17:59 - How caloric restriction, fasting, and exercise increase levels of a molecule called NAD+ and how this activates sirtuins, a family of genes involved in longevity. 00:21:47 - How NAD+ levels and sirtuin activities decrease with age, and how animal studies suggest that raising cellular NAD+ levels can trick the body into thinking it is younger. 00:23:03 - How resveratrol enhances the binding of sirtuins to NAD+ thus making sirtuins more easily activated for a longer period. 00:27:36 - We also discuss Steve Horvath's epigenetic aging clock, which measures DNA methylation groups, and how they may play a role in widespread gene regulation, including sirtuin genes, and how NAD+ may participate in resetting the clock. 00:31:54 - How the signal that resets the epigenetic clock in mice involves the Yamanaka factors -- a group of four transcription factors that can reprogram an adult cell to become a pluripotent stem cell that can form any cell type. 00:46:48 - How resveratrol is a xenohormetic compound and is produced when grape plants are stressed either in response to fungus or lack of water. 00:55:35 - How a phase 2 clinical trial involving people with Alzheimer's disease showed resveratrol improved cognitive function, improved cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta levels, lowered markers of activated microglia, and more. 00:58:03 - How both nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide have been shown to improve cognitive function and brain pathology in mice that have been engineered to get a disease similar to Alzheimer's disease. 01:06:19 - How older mice that were given nicotinamide mononucleotide experienced delayed aging in the liver, muscle, immune cells, eyes, and bones, but those that took a lower dose had improved mitochondrial function and enhanced physical performance. 01:01:22 - How there may be challenges in translating animal studies on nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide to humans particularly due to the need to determine the dose required to promote health benefits. And so much more! Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript Watch this episode's highlights on the FMF Clips channel Get early access with the premium members early access podcast feed, monthly Q&A sessions, an exclusive bi-weekly science digest email, and more! Click here to get started. Submit your raw genetic data to get the latest version of the genetic report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
This podcast is the audio from a presentation Dr. Rhonda Patrick gave on how the sauna may be an exercise mimetic for heat health and healthspan. Sauna use has emerged as a means to increase lifespan and improve overall health, based on compelling data from observational, interventional, and mechanistic studies. Listen in to find out more. Click here to get the episode show notes and video. Watch the episode with cardiologist and sauna scientist Dr. Jari Laukkanen. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast.
In this short episode, Dr. Patrick discusses some of the compelling science including observational studies, randomized controlled trials, and human mechanistic studies that suggests exercise is a powerful tool for preventing or managing the symptoms of depression and mental illness. Moreover, she talks about the specific types of exercise and exercise parameters that evidence suggests might be the most helpful for depression. This podcast started its life as a video, so make sure to check out the full video or the references and episode notes on the episode page. Click here to get this episode's show notes and video. Click here to visit the in-depth depression topic page. See the full interview with Dr. Charles Raison. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast and access the premium members benefits.
Elissa Epel, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco where she serves as the director of the Aging, Metabolism, and Emotions Center. Her research centers on the mechanisms of healthy aging and the associations between stress, telomere length, addiction, eating, and metabolic health. In this episode, we dive deep into the world of telomeres, the length of which is one of the useful biomarkers scientists have for getting a sense of the differences between how individuals or groups of individuals age. Telomere shortening is both a cause and a symptom of aging and plays key roles in not only how long we live, but in how well. Lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition and smoking can accelerate telomere shortening by generating oxidative stress and inflammation. Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript. Watch this episode's highlights on the FMF Clips channel. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Submit your raw genetic data. You can find the Telomere report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
Matthew Walker, Ph.D., is a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and serves as the Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science. Formerly, Dr. Walker served as a professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. Walker's research examines the impact of sleep on human health and disease. One area of interest focuses on identifying "vulnerability windows" during a person's life that make them more susceptible to amyloid-beta deposition from loss of slow wave sleep and, subsequently, Alzheimer's disease later in life. Dr. Walker earned his undergraduate degree in neuroscience from the University of Nottingham, UK, and his Ph.D. in neurophysiology from the Medical Research Council, London, UK. He is the author of the New York Times best-selling book Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams. Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript. Watch nearly twenty-seven episode highlights on the new FMF Clips channel. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Submit your raw genetic data. You can find the APOE report and the Circadian Report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
This episode features a Q&A session with Dr. Rhonda Patrick. The questions were sourced from social media followers of both FoundMyFitness and also Zero Fasting Tracker, a convenient mobile app used widely in the fasting community for logging. In this 45-minute podcast, Dr. Patrick answers some of the most popular questions related to fasting, including: What effects coffee, supplements, and amino acids have on fasting Whether one method of fasting is more beneficial than others What effect the consumption of exogenous ketones have on fasting Whether it is good to exercise while fasting The ideal way to break a fast How fasting affects muscle mass How fasting plays a role in the growth-longevity tradeoff ... and more! Watch the video of the conversion or get the timeline here. Learn how you can support the FoundMyFitness podcast for as little or as much as you like by clicking here.
Dale E. Bredesen, M.D., is a professor of neurology at the Easton Laboratories for Neurodegenerative Disease Research at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Dr. Bredesen's laboratory focuses on identifying and understanding basic mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process and the translation of this knowledge into effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. He has collaborated on the publication of more than 220 academic research papers. His work has culminated in the development of a protocol called ReCODE – reversal of cognitive decline – currently used by over 3,000 patients with the goal of not just preventing, but reversing Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Click here to get the episode's show notes and transcript. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Submit your raw genetic data.You can find the APOE report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
This podcast is a spectacular round two podcast with Dr. Valter Longo. Dr. Longo is the current director of the longevity institute at the University of Southern California and also director of the Oncology and Longevity Program at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation in Milan, Italy. Dr. Longo’s research focuses understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate the aging process, the role of fasting and diet in longevity and healthspan in humans as well as metabolic fasting therapies for the treatment of human diseases. In this episode, we discuss... What two seminal studies on chronic caloric restriction in primates from the 80s teach us about caloric restriction as a preventer of age-related disease, and how the effects of caloric restriction may actually be stronger when the diet that is being restricted is an unhealthy one – similar, in some ways, to the typical western diet. How certain macronutrients influence the insulin/IGF-1/growth hormone axis interact to modulate aging in many cell types. How mice and humans who have growth hormone receptor deficiencies have low circulating IGF-1 – as little as 10% of normal levels – and have reduced risk of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and age-related cognitive decline, hinting at what future research might reveal about the beneficial effects of prolonged fasting and fasting-mimicking diets through the downstream effects of periodic deprival of growth-related factors. How the growth hormone / IGF-1 axis got a big boost early on in scientific interest when it was revealed that mice that have either deficiency in growth hormone itself or the growth hormone receptor live up to 40% longer and how this is accomplished through what is essentially a delaying of the decrepitudes of old age. The origins of what Dr. Longo calls the fasting-mimicking diet – a 5-day diet focused on recapitulating some of the benefits of prolonged fasting, like dramatic changes in metabolic biomarkers, but without some of the drawbacks like reduced compliance and other risks that can come with multiple days of grueling strict water fasting in large, heterogeneous populations. How periodic prolonged fasting or the fasting-mimicking diet may be able to render cancer cells more vulnerable while conferring stress resistance to healthy cells, a quality known as differential stress resistance. This can happen because of the way fasting interferes with what is known as oncogenic signaling. The mixed results associated with the use of the ketogenic diet in treatment of cancer and how some cancers seem to be hurt by the metabolic switch of utilizing ketone bodies, which creates oxidative stress from the use of mitochondria, while other cancers seem to be able to use ketones effectively as an energy source, potentially accelerating their growth. Some of the early but promising pre-trial clinical anecdata suggesting potential complementary roles for the ketogenic diet and the fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) used in conjunction with conventional treatments like chemotherapy or radiotherapy for certain cancers like gliomas. In the context of aging, how the fasting mimicking diet has been shown to “reset” metabolism, driving down biomarkers associated with poor metabolic health, inflammation, and cardiovascular health. How fasting, through the shrinking and then re-expansion of whole systems like the liver, kidneys, heart, and immune cells may represent a type of whole-system renewal that originated as a three-billion-year-old self-repair mode that was only activated during periods of famine or inconsistent food availability, but might now be dormant in people living in a modern world of regular food intake. How Dr. Longo’s group has shown that, in animal models of multiple sclerosis and pharmacologically-induced type 1 diabetes, several cycles of the fasting-mimicking diet is able to reverse disease and restore healthful function. This mechanism also may generalize to erasing other diseases of autoimmunity through the destruction of autoimmune immune cells that are essentially reset through fresh differentiation from progenitors untainted by autoimmunity. A very exciting area of continued inquiry! How shorter fasts may fail to approach some of the effects of periodic fasting and the fasting-mimicking diet by failing to achieve adequate glycogen depletion and ketogenesis. Dr. Longo’s “top picks” for assessing biological age – markers a person can ask their doctor to measure to gauge how well they’re aging. A sneak peek at what’s covered in Dr. Longo’s new book, The Longevity Diet. … and so much more. Go to the timeline on the episode page to see a full breakdown. Click here to visit the episode page and show notes now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
Charles Raison, M.D. is a professor at the School of Human Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Founding Director of the Center for Compassion Studies in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Arizona. Dr. Raison’s research focuses on inflammation and the development of depression in response to illness and stress. He also examines the physical and behavioral effects of compassion training on the brain, inflammatory processes, and behavior as well as the effect of heat stress as a potentially therapeutic intervention major depressive disorder. In this nearly 2-hour episode, we discuss the extremely dynamic interaction that the immune system has with mood, behavior, and the brain, as well as the potential that whole-body hyperthermia, a research technique mostly indistinguishable from sauna use, may have for the treatment of clinical depression. Additionally, we also talk about…. How depression as a disease may be subdivided based on whether or not there is involvement of chronic inflammation and how this could influence how it should be treated. The changes in functional brain connectivity that are associated with the high inflammation subtype of depression. The physiological similarities a sauna, hot bath, steam shower, and hot yoga have with whole-body hyperthermia from the standpoint of potentially therapeutically boosting body temperature. Preliminary evidence that increased expression of a certain heat shock protein in the brain may influence behavior by protecting against stress-induced depression. … and so much more. Go to the timeline on the episode page to see a full breakdown. Click here to visit the episode page and show notes now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
Eric M. Verdin, M.D. is the fifth president and chief executive officer of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and is a professor of Medicine at UCSF. Dr. Verdin's laboratory focuses on the role of epigenetic regulators in the aging process, the role of metabolism and diet in aging and on the chronic diseases of aging, including Alzheimer’s, proteins that play a central role in linking caloric restriction to increased healthspan, and more recently a topic near and dear to many of you, ketogenesis. He's held faculty positions at the University of Brussels, the NIH and the Picower Institute for Medical Research. In this episode, we discuss... The effects of a low protein, cyclic ketogenic diet beginning in midlife (12 months of age) in male mice. The result? Increased healthspan and improved memory. Dr. Verdin explains how the cyclic ketogenic diet decreased insulin, IGF-1, and mTOR signaling and decreased fatty acid synthesis, and increased PPAR-alpha (which promotes beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle). How this diet is somewhat qualitatively similar to fasting. Some of the possible reasons why the cyclic ketogenic diet created such a striking improvement in memory even when compared to younger mice. How beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is the major circulating ketone body during fasting and nutritional ketosis, may, in addition to being an energy source, regulate inflammation and gene expression by acting as a signaling molecule by inhibiting what are known as class 1 histone deacetylases (HDACs). How this inhibition of class 1 HDACs leads to the increased expression of notorious longevity gene Foxo3, which may help explain why mice given an exogenous beta-hydroxybutyrate ester had lower markers of inflammation and oxidative damage, which are physiological contributors to the aging process. The role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the aging process and how replacing declining levels (or preventing them from declining in the first place) may prove to be an important anti-aging strategy. Some of the reasons why NAD+ might be declining with age, its role in DNA damage repair via an enzyme known as PARP, and what the literature says about the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside. How a special class of enzymes called sirtuins, also known to be activated by caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetic resveratrol, is tightly correlated with the level of NAD+ and how this "energetic currency" rises in response to fasting. The role of the sirtuin enzymes in regulating mitochondrial function, neuronal functions, stem cell rejuvenation and why they may be important in delaying the aging process. Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
This is a nearly 2-hour round 2 episode with none other than Dr. Satchin Panda of the Salk Institute! At nearly two hours of dialog, this episode touches on a lot of material but has a special focus on practical implementation of time-restricted eating. Put another way, I kept a list of a lot of questions that seem to keep coming up and present them directly to Satchin. We talk about dealing with shift work, black coffee when fasting, and some of the distinctions between Satchin's approach to time-restricted eating which is influenced by his deep background in circadian biology and more conventional protocols like 16:8 that many people are familiar with. In addition to these important and very practical how-to tidbits, we dive into lots of interesting new territory as well, including... How human anecdote and animal evidence suggests time-restricted feeding may be especially useful for gut-related issues, including inflammatory bowel disease and acid reflux. The fascinating way Dr. Panda is using human anecdote from his trial to ask new scientific questions he wouldn't think to ask and then going back to animal data to figure it out and how this unique approach forms a sort of closed loop pattern: animal → human feedback → back to animal for mechanism. How labs doing caloric restriction research may have actually been reaping the benefits of time-restricted without realizing it as an incidental to their experimental design. The revelation that 70% of FDA drugs are subject to circadian effects and are either less effective or more effective at certain times of the day. The effect melatonin has on the pancreatic production of insulin and the insight this lends to why we should probably stop eating 3-4 hours before we go to bed. The bizarre way circadian rhythms affects everything from susceptibility to UV damage to recovery from surgery to cancer risk. Sign-up for Dr. Panda's mobile app study on time-restricted eating. Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
Dr. Guido Kroemer is a professor at the University of Paris Descartes and an expert in immunology, cancer biology, aging, and autophagy. He is one of the most highly cited authors in the field of cell biology and was the most highly cited cell biologist for the period between 2007 and 2013. Especially notable among his contributions: he was the first to discover that the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes is a concrete step towards apoptotic cell death. This episode is decidedly focused on autophagy, an important cellular program that is inducible by dietary fasting and has broad implications for aging and cancer. Autophagy discussion includes: How the 3 main signals that activate autophagy all involve nutrient sensing (00:09:09). The role of different types of fasting and nutrient deprivation in autophagy (00:20:55). How different types of exercise can induce autophagy (00:24:35). How a specific type of autophagy called mitophagy keeps mitochondria healthy (00:36:29). How autophagy has been shown to slow cellular aging (00:33:07). How autophagy prevents neurodegenerative diseases by clearing away protein aggregates (00:39:38). The role of autophagy in cancer as a possible double-edged sword (00:48:29). How certain compounds known as caloric restriction mimetics (or fasting mimetics) including resveratrol, spermidine, hydroxycitrate can induce autophagy by tricking the cell through the modulation of one or more of the 3 main autophagy signaling pathways (00:54:52). Visit Dr. Guido Kroemer's website. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like. Watch the full video on YouTube.
This podcast features Jari Laukkanen, M.D., Ph.D., a cardiologist and scientist at the Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio. Dr. Laukkanen has been conducting long-term trials looking at the health effects of sauna use in a population of over 2,000 middle-aged men in Finland. The results? Massive reductions in mortality and memory disease in a dose-response fashion at 20-year follow-up. In this almost 25-minute episode, we talk about... 00:00:37 - The association between sauna use and fatal cardiovascular outcomes. 00:00:37 - The inverse association between cardiovascular-related deaths and all-cause deaths. 00:02:00 - How men that used the sauna 2-3 times per week had a 27% lower cardiovascular-related mortality than men that used the sauna 1 time per week. 00:02:15 - How men that used the sauna 4-7 times per week had a 50% lower cardiovascular-related mortality than men that used the sauna one time per week. 00:02:50 - The confounding factors Dr. Laukkanen and his colleagues had to adjust for, such as physical exercise, cholesterol, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status. 00:03:26 - The various types of cardiac-related deaths their reductions were shown in, including coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death and more. 00:05:00 - How one of the major mechanisms by which sauna use improves heart health is by reducing blood pressure and incident hypertension. 00:05:40 - The mechanisms by which the sauna lowers blood pressure, which can occur via balancing of the autonomic nervous system, improvements in blood vessel function, decreases in arterial stiffness and compliance of arteries. 00:06:17 - The increases in heart rate seen with sauna use that make it similar to moderate aerobic exercise in some ways (up to 150 beats/min!). 00:06:56 - How time spent in the sauna was one of the more important factors for risk reduction with at least 20 minutes per session in a 174 F (79C) 4-7 times per week being a "sweet spot." 00:09:29 - The inverse, dose-response relationship between sauna use and all-cause mortality: 24% for 2-3 times per week, 40% for 4-7 times. 00:10:00 - His newest study that now shows a reduction in risk in a similar dose-response fashion for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease by around 65% for the most frequent sauna users. 00:10:18 - The way sauna use increases heat shock proteins which repair damaged proteins and prevent protein aggregates and how this could end up being at least one potential molecular mechanism at play. 00:13:03 - How sauna use increases growth hormone by 200-330%. 00:14:10 - The patterns of sauna use and especially whether to sauna before or after you weight train. 00:15:55 - The effect of sauna on mood which may be from improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and possibly endorphins as well. 00:18:39 - How sauna improves heart rate variability. 00:20:04 - Cold-water immersion after sauna and a few cautionary words for extreme contrast therapy in people with a pre-existing heart condition that is currently unstable. Send Dr. Jari Laukkanen a tweet on Twitter. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
Dr. Judith Campisi is a professor of biogerentology at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and a co-editor in chief of the Aging Journal. As an expert on cellular senescence, the discussion involves a lot of talk about aging and cancer, where senescence plays a very important fundamental role. What are some of the strategies we might use in the future to prevent senescent cells? What causes them in the first place? In this 1-hour long conversation, we discuss a great number of very interesting things including: Why diseases of aging, despite occurring in vary diverse tissue types, all begin to crop up simultaneously after 50 or 60 years of life. What the fundamental molecular processes of aging are and what some of the on-going research and general thoughts are surrounding these processes. What senescence is and the evolutionary biology explanation for why we have the mechanism of cellular senescence in the first place. The infiltration of immune cells into our tissues that occurs as a function of aging and the role of damaged or senescent cells in attracting these immune cells. The changes in gut permeability that happens with age and how that may increase our susceptibility to chronic, low-level inflammation. The role of senescent cells in cancer metastasis and progression. The clearance of senescent cells as a valid life extension strategy. How mitochondrial dysfunction, even in the absence of DNA damage, can cause cells to undergo senescence. The interesting observation that senescence from damage versus energy crisis (failed mitochondria) demonstrates a different and unique phenotype of cellular senescence. The effects prolonged fasting may have on the clearance of senescent cells. How periodic prolonged fasts might mimic some of the effects associated with an mTOR dampening drug like rapamycin. How the secretions of senescent cells can affect the regenerative capacity of stem cells. The practicality of a consumer available clinical assays for DNA damage and the challenge of assessing tissue-specific senescence without the use of invasive biopsy. The effect of so-called fasting mimetic compounds (e.g. hydroxycitrate, resveratrol & spermidine) on senescent cells. And believe it or not much more! Studies mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 Learn more about Dr. Judy Campisi. Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.
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Comments (32)

Josh Er

awesome thanks Rhonda

Jun 4th
Reply

P. Dutra

i miss your podcasts. Hope everything is alright and that you guys can post more soon. it's really great material.

Mar 9th
Reply

Sebastian Andersson

What do you think of n Acetyl Cysteine ​​vs sulforafan in broccoli sprouts regarding activation of glutathione? //Sebastian in Sweden

Jan 8th
Reply

damian ferr

thanks, for explaining the difference between trans, and regular.

Jan 3rd
Reply

Tom Foolery

Smartest human on optimal health. The ability to research and remember these studies; then apply their information is uncanny. I wish you were in charge of public health. The world would be a better place. Not that it isn't already because of you and the people that you introduce us to in this. Thanks so much!

Dec 22nd
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Rich Frissen

“I want to know what’s right, not who’s right” https://m.facebook.com/groups/553235201434948/

Dec 8th
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Blunt

I've been eagerly waiting so long for this!

Nov 7th
Reply (1)

Vali Florea

Is just me who thinks this is on fast speach?

Aug 14th
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Juan Reyna

🤘

Jun 18th
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Pedro Gonçalves

I have been trying Hemp oil, which has a high content of CBD and no THC. It seems to work quite well, it might be placebo but it's the best placebo I've ever seen. I take it once a week on a day that I can sleep as long as I want, I go to bed earlier. I sleep two hours longer, I almost double my deep sleep, increase my REM in half hour (according to my Huawei band 3 Pro), and fall asleep easier compared with a day with same conditions without the oil. I don't do it more often because I have found no studies to assure me that I won't create any other problems by inducing more sleep this way. Let me know if you know of any study on CBD.

Mar 9th
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Devin Ocampo

To quote Wim Hof, "I love this shit!"

Jan 27th
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Johnny Reyna

Awesome. Thank you.

Jan 24th
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Adam Kelley

Great info. thanks! I'm curious if this would have any impact on people who live in cold climates. Can being outside or exercising in the cold be considered to have the same benefits?

Jan 16th
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Joachim Bekkers

amazing podcast. thnx Rhonda !

Jan 16th
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Robert Kowalewski

‘ “

Dec 4th
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Will

Thank you Dr. Rhonda Patrick and heard you first on the JRE and been a fan of yours ever since. As always very informative podcast and your site with so much resources and references. I'm signing up for your site and support you and appreciate all that you do. My mom has been diagnosed with dementia last December and this has been particularly a topic of interest for me. Thank you for putting this together. Have a great weekend!

Oct 6th
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Chris Bakker

great job

Oct 5th
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Sílvia A.

thank you dear Rhonda for your fantastic work searching and sharing the real science about what we eat and what we do. I live in a little portuguêse island in the midle of the atlântic name Madeira , and your work on the podcast is really important for me and my family.

Oct 5th
Reply (1)

Josh Er

Peter, stop cutting Rhonda off!

Aug 31st
Reply

David Gillespie

Your great! I didn't think you had a podcast when I searched your name.

Jun 18th
Reply (1)
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