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JAMA Clinical Reviews

Author: JAMA Network

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Author interviews that explore the latest clinical reviews.
172 Episodes
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Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly used medicines by patients. They’re generally safe, but they can cause acute kidney injury, and it’s important for clinicians to be aware of this potential complication. David Juurlink, MD, PhD, internist and clinical pharmacologist from the University of Toronto, discusses this important potential complication. Related Article:  An Evidence-Based Approach to the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Although there are only about 4000 new cases of amyloidosis in the US per year, it can cause preserved ejection fraction heart failure, kidney and liver failure, and neuropathy. Amyloidosis is easily diagnosed and treatable, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for these diseases. Morie A. Gertz, MD, from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, talks with JAMA Clinical Reviews about amyloidosis. Related: Systemic Amyloidosis Recognition, Prognosis, and Therapy
Although frequently reported, penicillin allergy is actually uncommon. Penicillins are very effective against a wide variety of infections, and when they can't be used, problems arise. We discussed the problem of penicillin allergy with David Juurlink, MD, PhD, internist and clinical pharmacologist from the University of Toronto. Related Article(s): Evaluation and Management of Penicillin Allergy
One of the most common causes for problems we see in manuscripts at JAMA is an inappropriately calculated study sample size. This seemingly mysterious process is explained by Lynne Stokes, PhD, professor of Statistical Science at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas.
Generalizability of randomized trials is always limited because of the super-selectivity of the patients enrolled in these trials and the very controlled conditions in which clinical care is delivered. Pragmatic trials are performed in order to provide guidance for how to best deliver clinical care in situations that more closely resemble actual clinical scenarios. Hal Sox, MD, director of peer review for the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), explains how these trials work and what clinical questions they answer. Related: Pragmatic Trials: Practical Answers to “Real-world” Questions
Overview of Depression

Overview of Depression

2020-06-0231:014

Nearly 10% of all patients seen in primary care have depression. Although usually mild, when depression is severe the consequences can be serious. Tom Garrick, MD, professor of Psychiatry at the University of Southern California, discusses the diagnosis and treatment of depression. Related: Drugs for Depression
Even limited hearing loss might be associated with cognitive decline. If true, early intervention with hearing aids might help people have better cognitive performance. Michael Johns III, MD, online editor for JAMA Otolaryngology, speaks with Justin Golub, MD, assistant professor of otolaryngology at Columbia University, whose research has shown that very mild hearing loss can be associated with cognitive disability. Related Article 
When she was a teenager Melissa Red Hoffman's father was killed by terrorists. Dr Hoffman recalls her father's death and how that has influenced her career and how she can identify with patients and their families at the most difficult moments. Read the story: The Sound of Silence—When There Are No Words
Management of COVID-19-related respiratory failure differs from what is necessary for ARDS. Rather than having alveolar edema, COVID-19 patients have pulmonary vascular dysregulation. Gas exchange is severely compromised with little reduction in lung compliance. Ventilatory support for COVID-19 patients requires higher than normal tidal volumes with minimal PEEP and allowance for higher than usual serum CO2 levels. How the unique pathophysiology of respiratory failure should be treated is discussed by John J. Marini, MD, professor of medicine at the University of Minnesota.
More than 6 million people worldwide have Parkinson disease. Even though it is classically associated with tremors, the disease has many manifestations and is very treatable for most patients. Michael S. Okun, MD, from the Department of Neurology at the University of Florida, Gainesville, discusses the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Parkinson disease. Related: Choosing a Parkinson Disease Treatment
Shortages of face masks and N95 respirators have forced clinicians and hospitals to reuse these normally disposable items. Ron Shaffer, PhD, former CDC PPE Research Branch Chief, discusses effective sterilization techniques and how to test that the equipment stays protective after sterilization.
Eczema is extremely common in children. Most the time it is easily treated with topical steroids but on occasion it requires systemic therapies. JAMA Pediatrics Editor Dimitri Christakis, MD, MPH, and JAMA Network Open Editor Frederick Rivara, MD, MPH, discuss the results of a clinical trial of a new monoclonal antibody intended to improve eczema in children that was published in the January 2020 issue of JAMA Pediatrics. Related: Are Bacteria Transplants the Future of Eczema Therapy? Effect of an Intervention to Promote Breastfeeding on Asthma, Lung Function, and Atopic Eczema at Age 16 Years: Follow-up of the PROBIT Randomized Trial Persistence of Childhood Eczema Into Adulthood Association Between Eczema and Stature in 9 US Population-Based Studies Healthcare Utilization, Patient Costs, and Access to Care in US Adults With Eczema: A Population-Based Study Management of Atopic Dermatitis Anti-IgE Medication Lessens Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis Severity Atopic Eczema
Food and medicine shopping is essential during the COVID-19 pandemic, but requires getting out and standing close to strangers at a time when social distancing and sheltering-in-place are recommended to slow spread of disease. David Aronoff, MD, director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, explains how to minimize COVID-19 risk while shopping.
The lack of availability of COVID-19 testing has interfered with the ability to contain the spread of disease. Omai Garner, PhD, laboratory director for Clinical Microbiology in the UCLA health system, explains how PCR testing for COVID-19 works and why testing is in short supply.
In 2003, Toronto was the North American center for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The disease spread through the city’s hospitals before anyone knew what was happening. Dr. Allison McGeer was a clinician caring for SARS patients and ultimately was infected herself. She describes her experience as a patient and provider and reviews lessons learned that might help others manage their regional COVID-19 outbreaks. Related: Supporting the Health Care Workforce During the COVID-19 Global Epidemic
As COVID-19 spreads, clinicians and health systems are struggling to prepare for a surge of patients. Richard Stone, MD, the US Veterans Health Administration's Executive in Charge, spoke with JAMA about how the VA health system is preparing for this public health emergency.
Chloroquine was shown in 2004 to be active in vitro against SARS coronavirus but is of unproven efficacy and safety in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The drug's potential benefits and risks for COVID-19 patients, without and with azithromycin, is discussed by Dr. David Juurlink, head of the Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming more frequent as the population becomes more obese. This is not a benign problem, and NASH can ultimately lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. It is thought that NASH will ultimately become the most common cause for liver transplant. NASH is usually diagnosed as an incidental finding, but once found requires careful monitoring and patient counseling. Lisa N. Kransdorf, MD, MPH, from UCLA Health in California, discusses the diagnosis and management of NASH from a primary care clinician's perspective.
Hyperparathyroidism is a fairly common disease that causes elevated calcium levels and bone depletion, resulting in fractures and kidney problems. There are medications that can effectively manage hyperparathyroidism, and in some cases surgery is indicated. Michael Yeh, MD, professor and chief of endocrine surgery at UCLA, discusses the management of hyperparathyroidism.
Emerging information about how SARS-CoV-2 virus infects cells has led to speculation that NSAIDs and ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may worsen clinical disease. Infectious disease physician Carlos del Rio, MD, of Emory University explains the concerns and their clinical implications.
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Comments (14)

Lucy K

I guess this podcast got it totally wrong. Tunnel vision.

Apr 10th
Reply

Prasad Chalasani

Shockingly bad advice — “asymptomatic people don’t need to wear masks in a grocery store”. It’s been established that people shed virus for up to as much as a week before showing symptoms, if the develop them at all. This advice is doing a huge disservice, I urge you to fix this

Apr 6th
Reply (2)

zahra aghajanzadeh

.

Mar 21st
Reply

Jon Elliott

such crap. no mention of the well-known and understood cause and cure of CAD - DIET AND LIFESTYLE. No surprise that OMT has limited and minimal efficacy when the engine of CAD us left running.

Mar 8th
Reply

Nuage Laboratoire

text

Mar 1st
Reply

Yasmine C

Unprofessional behavior leads to complications?! who woulda thunk it?

Feb 28th
Reply

Christal Cooper

didn't ask for this movies

Feb 28th
Reply

Matt Bowen

God Bless the American Soldier

Nov 28th
Reply (1)

Nathan Birch

9 d

Jul 25th
Reply (1)

Rodrigo Py

Amazing, episode!

May 21st
Reply
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