Discover通勤學英語 15Mins Today回顧星期天LBS - 能源相關時事趣聞 All about energy
回顧星期天LBS - 能源相關時事趣聞 All about energy

回顧星期天LBS - 能源相關時事趣聞 All about energy

Update: 2021-10-09
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Topic: More Power Lines or Rooftop Solar Panels: The Fight Over Energy’s Future





 



The nation is facing once-in-a-generation choices about how energy ought to be delivered to homes, businesses and electric cars — decisions that could shape the course of climate change and determine how the United States copes with wildfires, heat waves and other extreme weather linked to global warming.





關於能源如何輸送到住家、企業和電動車,美國正面臨一個世代一次的抉擇,這個決定可能形塑氣候變遷進程,並決定美國如何應付與全球暖化有關的野火、熱浪和其他極端天氣。





On one side, large electric utilities and President Joe Biden want to build thousands of miles of power lines to move electricity created by distant wind turbines and solar farms to cities and suburbs. On the other, some environmental organizations and community groups are pushing for greater investment in rooftop solar panels, batteries and local wind turbines.





一方面,大型電力公司和總統拜登想要鋪設數千哩的電線,將遠方風力渦輪機和太陽能電場製造的電力運送到城市和郊區。另一方面,一些環境組織和社區團體正推動更多投資於屋頂太陽能板、電池以及在地風力渦輪機。





Biden has secured $73 billion for thousands of miles of new power lines in an infrastructure proposal he and senators from both parties agreed to in June. That deal includes the creation of a Grid Development Authority to speed up approvals for transmission lines.





拜登和兩黨參議員今年6月同意的基礎建設方案中,他已取得用來鋪設數千哩新電線所需的730億美元。這項方案包括成立「電網開發局」,以加速批准傳輸線鋪設。





Most energy experts agree that the United States must improve its aging electric grids, especially after millions of Texans spent days freezing this winter when the state’s electricity system faltered.





大多數能源專家同意,美國必須改善老化的電網,特別在上個冬天德州電力系統不穩,導致數百萬德州人受凍數天之後。





The option supported by Biden and some large energy companies would replace coal and natural gas power plants with large wind and solar farms hundreds of miles from cities, requiring lots of new power lines. Such integration would strengthen the control that the utility industry and Wall Street have over the grid.





這個獲拜登和一些大型能源公司支持的方案,將用距離都市數百哩的大型風電和太陽能電場,取代燃煤和天然氣發電廠,需要大量新電線。這類整合將強化公用事業和華爾街對電網的控制。





“You’ve got to have a big national plan to make sure the power gets from where it is generated to where the need is,” Energy Secretary Jennifer Granholm said.





「你得有一個全國性的大計畫,確保電力能從它產生的地方運送到需要的地方。」能源部長格蘭霍姆說。





But many of Biden’s liberal allies argue that solar panels, batteries and other local energy sources should be emphasized because they would be more resilient and could be built more quickly.





但許多拜登的自由派盟友主張,應該著重太陽能板、電池及其他在地能源來源,因為它們更耐用,建置速度更快。





“We need to build the electricity transmission and distribution system for the grid of the future and not that of the past,” said Howard Learner, executive director of the Environmental Law & Policy Center, a nonprofit based in Chicago. “Solar energy plus storage is as transformative to the electric sector as wireless services were to the telecommunications sector.”





「我們需要為未來的電網打造電力傳輸和配送系統,而非過去的電網。」以芝加哥為據點的非營利組織「環境法律與政策中心」執行主任霍華.藍納說,「太陽能加上儲存裝置對電力事業的轉型性,一如無線網路之於電信事業」。





In all probability, there will be a mix of solutions that include more transmission lines and rooftop solar panels. What combination emerges will depend on deals made in Congress but also skirmishes playing out across the country.





最終很可能會有個綜合性方案,包含更多傳輸線和屋頂太陽能板。至於何種組合會出線,取決於國會達成的方案以及全國各地的爭論。Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5672857





 



Next Article





 



Topic : California Is Trying to Jump-Start the Hydrogen Economy





 



Since President George W. Bush fueled a minivan with hydrogen 15 years ago, the promise of cars and trucks powered by the fuel has come up mostly empty.





15年前,時任美國總統的小布希為一輛廂型休旅車加上氫燃料,發展氫能小客車和貨車的美好期盼迄今卻大抵落空。





That hydrogen pump, in Washington, closed long ago. But in California, the beginnings of a hydrogen economy may finally be dawning after many fits and starts.





華府的那座加氫站早已停用,然而在加州,氫經濟在幾經周折之後,可能真的要起步了。





Dozens of hydrogen buses are lumbering down city streets, while more and larger fueling stations are appearing from San Diego to San Francisco, financed by the state and the federal government. With the costs of producing and shipping hydrogen coming down, California is setting ambitious goals to phase out vehicles that run on fossil fuels in favor of batteries and hydrogen.





在州政府和聯邦出資之下,從聖地牙哥到舊金山,數十輛氫動力公車緩緩行駛於城市街道,更多且更大的加氫站也一一出現。由於氫製造和運輸的成本下降,加州立定遠大目標,要逐步淘汰化石燃料車,轉向電動車和氫能車。





Some energy executives said they expect investment in hydrogen to accelerate under President-elect Joe Biden, who made climate change a big part of his campaign and proposed a $2 trillion plan to tackle the problem.





一些能源業高管預期,對氫能的投資會在總統當選人拜登上台後加速成長。拜登以遏制氣候變遷為重要政見,並提出一項2兆美元的因應計畫。





A recent McKinsey & Co. study estimated that the hydrogen economy could generate $140 billion in annual revenue by 2030 and support 700,000 jobs. The study projected that hydrogen could meet 14% of total American energy demand by 2050.





管理顧問公司麥肯錫最近在一份研究中估計,到2030年時,氫經濟每年能創造1400億美元營收,支撐70萬個工作機會。這份研究預測,到2050年,氫將能滿足全美14%的能源需求。





The use of hydrogen, the lightest and most abundant substance in the universe, is still in its infancy, and California is determined to be its cradle in the United States.The state now has roughly 40 fueling stations, with dozens more under construction. While those numbers are tiny compared with the 10,000 gasoline stations across the state, officials have high hopes.





氫是宇宙中最輕且最豐富的物質,人類利用氫能還在初始階段,而加州決心成為美國氫能利用的搖籃。加州目前約有40個加氫站,還有數十個在興建中。雖然加氫站數量與全加州一萬個加油站相比微不足道,但官員仍滿懷希望。





With about 7,500 hydrogen vehicles on the road, an aggressive state program of incentives and subsidies from cap-and-trade dollars envisions 50,000 hydrogen light-duty vehicles by mid-decade and a network of 1,000 hydrogen stations by 2030.





目前加州約有7500輛氫能車上路,州政府積極利用取自「總量管制與排放交易」的財源來進行補貼和獎勵,希望達到2025年左右有5萬輛輕型氫能車上路,2030年有1000個加氫站的目標。





Hydrogen-powered vehicles are similar to electric cars. But unlike electric cars, which have large batteries, these cars have hydrogen tanks and fuel cells that turn the gas into electricity. The cars refuel and accelerate quickly, and they can go for several hundred miles on a full tank. They emit only water vapor, which makes them appealing to California cities that are trying to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.





氫能車類似電動車,不同的是,電動車的電池很大,氫能車則有氫氣儲存槽和把氫氣轉換成電力的燃料電池。氫能車補充燃料和加速都很快,氫氣槽加滿後能跑幾百哩。氫能車只會釋出蒸氣,對於努力減少汙染和溫室氣體排放量的加州很有吸引力。





“Almost any objective analysis for getting to zero emissions includes hydrogen,” said Jack Brouwer, director of the National Fuel Cell Research Center at the University of California, Irvine.





爾灣加州大學國家燃料電池研究中心主任傑克‧布勞爾說:「幾乎所有關於如何達到零排放的客觀分析都會提到氫。」Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5106534





 



Next Article





 



Topic: Israel’s Energy Dilemma: More Natural Gas Than It Can Use or Export





 



For decades, Israel was an energy-starved country surrounded by hostile, oil-rich neighbors.





數十年來,以色列一直是能源緊缺的國家,被敵對且富藏石油的鄰國環繞。





Now it has a different problem. Thanks to major offshore discoveries over the past decade, it has more natural gas than it can use or readily export.





如今,以色列面對的問題已然不同。由於過去十年來以色列在近海發現大量天然氣,以色列擁有的天然氣已比國內用量和願意出口的份量還多。





Having plenty of gas is hardly a burden, and it offers a cleaner-burning alternative to Israel’s longtime power sources. But it presents challenges for a country that wants to extract geopolitical and economic benefits from a rare energy windfall, including building better relations with its neighbors and Europe.





天然氣儲量豐富難說是個負擔,而且讓以色列在依靠已久的電力來源之外,多了一個更乾淨的燃氣選項。不過,擁有大量天然氣也對以色列構成挑戰,以色列想藉由這罕見的意外發現的能源,獲取地緣政治和經濟利益,包括與鄰國和歐洲改善關係。





Part of the problem is timing. Just as Israel prepares to produce and export large amounts of gas, the United States, Australia, Qatar and Russia are flooding the market with cheap gas. The other is math: Israel’s 8.5 million people use in a year less than 1% of the gas that has been found in the country’s waters.





問題之一是時機。就在以色列準備生產大量天然氣並出口時,美國、澳洲、卡達和俄國都把廉價天然氣傾銷到市場上。另一個問題是供需,以色列人口850萬,一年用掉的份量不到海域已探明儲量的1%。





“We have a surplus of gas,” Energy Minister Yuval Steinitz said in an interview. “Israeli waters are swimming in gas, and what we have discovered is only the beginning.”





以色列能源部長史坦尼茲受訪時說:「我們有多餘的天然氣,以色列海域滿是天然氣,而且我們探明的只是一小部分。」





Noble Energy, a Houston-based company that made its first discovery of gas in Israel in 1999, has found more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas off the country’s coast over the past decade. Some experts say new discoveries could double that.





諾伯爾能源公司總部設在美國德州休士頓,1999年發現以色列的天然氣,是這家公司首次,過去十年來在以色列近海發現的天然氣超過30兆立方英尺。一些專家說,接下來發現的量可能兩倍於此。





As a result, Israel is phasing out diesel and coal-fired electricity, replacing it mostly with gas-fired generation and some solar power. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Cabinet is considering banning the import of gasoline and diesel cars starting in 2030 and gradually switching to vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas or electricity.





自然而然,以色列逐步淘汰燃燒柴油與燃煤發電,取而代之的主要是燃氣發電,還有一些太陽能。總理內唐亞胡內閣考慮從2030年起,禁止進口汽油與柴油車,並逐步改用壓縮天然氣汽車或電動車。





Israel is also stepping up exports to neighbors like Jordan and Egypt. There are even plans to supply gas to a power plant in the West Bank for Palestinian customers.





以色列還加強把天然氣出口到約旦和埃及等鄰國,甚至打算把天然氣供應給約旦河西岸一家發電廠,讓巴勒斯坦客戶使用。





Yet these efforts will make only a dent in the country’s reserves.





不過,這些舉動對解決以色列天然氣儲量豐富的問題只略有幫助。





“We want to export,” said Jacob Nagel, former head of Israel’s National Security Council. “The question is: How much will it cost? Is it possible? How much time will it take?”





以色列國家安全會議前主席內格爾說:「我們是想把天然氣出口,問題是,成本有多高?可行嗎?要花多少時間?」





For decades, Israel depended on Russia and other sources for fuel, while its industries and homes relied on coal and oil power plants that blanketed its cities with smog.





數十年來,以色列靠俄國等國家取得能源,工業和民生用電則仰賴燃煤和燃油,使城市煙霧彌漫。





The switch to gas has helped clear the air in cities like Tel Aviv and Haifa that have converted diesel-fueled plants.Israel’s biggest coal plant — in Hadera, a coastal city — will be converted over the next three years, cutting national coal consumption by 30%. Officials say they expect to eliminate coal use in 11 years.





改用天然氣使特拉維夫、海法等城市空氣變得清新。特拉維夫和海法已將柴油火力發電廠轉換成燃氣電廠。以色列最大燃煤電廠在濱海城市哈德拉,將在三年內轉換為燃氣電廠,能使全國煤炭消耗量減少三成。官員說,希望能在11年內淘汰煤電。Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/343671/web/#2L-15341939L

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回顧星期天LBS - 能源相關時事趣聞 All about energy

回顧星期天LBS - 能源相關時事趣聞 All about energy

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