Update: 2020-10-31



Presented by: Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes

Executive Director, AllCEUs

CEUs are available for this presentation at https://www.allceus.com/member/cart/index/product/id/585/c/


– Define bullying

– Explore the types of bullying

– Identify characteristics of bullies

– Identify motivations for bullying

– Identify effects of bullying

– Explore interventions to

– Stop Bullying

– Help bullying victims

What is Bullying

– A pattern of aggressive behavior involving unwanted negative actions which involves an imbalance of strength or power (physical, social)

How Big of A Problem Is It

– Prevalence

– More than half of adolescents have been bullied online and about the same number have engaged in bullying

– Only 1 in 10 tells a parent they have been a victim

– Bullycide

– According to the Yale School of Medicine, adolescent suicide rates have increased more than 50% in the last 30 years.

– 19,000 victims of bullying will attempt suicide each year (1 every 30 minutes) according to the American Psychiatric Association

Types of Bullying

– Verbal

– Degrading or demeaning to give the aggressor power

– Physical

– Pushing, shoving, hitting

– Stealing

– Sexual assault

– Relational

– When behaviors are used as a means of achieving a goal

– In reaction/retaliation to provocation

Types of Bullying

– Cyberbullying

– The use of the internet and related technologies (i.e. Iphones, Snapchat, Instagram etc…) to harm other people in a deliberate and repeated manner.

– Is inescapable

– Forms

– Harrassment

– Impersonation

– Use of Photographs

– Creating websites and blogs

– Participating in “happy slapping”

Characteristics of Bullies

– Lower parental supervision (More permissive)

– Drug and alcohol use

– Family conflict

– Parents, coaches who show power and aggression by yelling, hitting

– Siblings or friends who bully the child

– Trouble standing up to peer pressure

– Low frustration tolerance

– Relate to others negatively

Characteristics of Bullies

– Low self esteem

– Lack of empathy

– Strong needs for power and dominance

– Often rewarded in some way for their behavior (material, social or psychological)

Motivations for Bullying

– Power & Control

– “Respect” (Intimidation)

– Revenge

– Social and material rewards

– Questions

– Where does the need for power and control come from?

– What are the long and short term benefits of bullying and how can they be reduced?

– What other ways can be provided for youth to achieve the same benefits in a prosocial manner?

Characteristics of Victims & Interventions

– Overweight, underweight, not physically attractive

– New students.

– Assign them a mentor

– Being different or not considered “cool.”

– Emphasize and reward student strengths beginning in elementary school.

– Perceived as weak or unable to defend themselves

– Pay particular attention to students who are bully-prone

Characteristics of Victims & Interventions

– Depressed, anxious

– Teach age-appropriate coping skills

– Educate about depression and fear/anxiety

– Low self-esteem

– Increase self-esteem

– Reduce need for external validation

– Unpopular or do not socialize well with others

– Teach social skills

– Teach communication skills

Effects of Bullying

– Unwillingness to attend school

– Lower grades

– Increased somatic complaints

– Lower self-esteem

– More anxiety and depression

– Increased risk for alcohol or drug use

– Increased risk for eating disorders

Bullying Myths

– Only boys bully

– Kids will outgrow bullying

– People who bully have low self-esteem

– Bullying will resolve itself if you ignore it

– Bullying is done when nobody else is around

– Teachers intervene to stop bullying

– Reporting bullying will make it worse


– Educate kids about the consequences

– Encourage victims to not respond and “feed in”

– Keep computers in a public area of the house

– Encourage friendships

– Teach effective communication skills

– Identify ways to cope with bullying

– Facilitate school success and commitment

– Improve school organization and student monitoring and enforcement of anti-bullying rules

More Interventions

– Support open expression of objective opinions

– Teach problem solving

– Provide opportunities for cooperative group work IN the classroom


– Bullying is far more prevalent today than before

– Cyberbullying feels inescapable

– Bullying related suicide attempts have increased drastically

– Depression involves feeling hopeless and helpless

– Interventions

– Build on children's strengths (self-esteem)

– Teach them how to cope with adversity

– Provide tools and opportunities for social skills development and friendships


– Interventions

– Educate about the difference between respect and intimidation

– Enforce a no bullying policy at school AND home (Family contracts for non-bullying)

– Teach children how to report cyberbullying

– Eliminate the rewards bullies get for bullying

– Broaden consequences to not only primary bullies but “henchmen”

– Increase rewards for prosocial behavior


– http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/cyber-bullying-statistics.html

– https://www.verywell.com/types-of-cyberbullying-460549

– http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/teens-cyber-bullying-risk-factors-1025123

– http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/friendship-reduces-bullying-1122111/

– http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/bullies-may-be-at-increased-risk-for-anorexia-bulimia-1117151

– www.ohio.edu/people/mk931908/riskfactors.html

– http://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/groups/index.html

– http://www.erasebullying.ca/bullying/bullying-risks.php

– https://www.verywell.com/what-are-the-risk-factors-for-becoming-a-bully-460518

– https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=719









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Charles Snipes