DiscoverCounselor Toolbox PodcastInteractions of Hormones and Neurotransmitters
Interactions of Hormones and Neurotransmitters

Interactions of Hormones and Neurotransmitters

Update: 2021-01-241
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CEUs available at: https://allceus.com/member/cart/index/product/id/1409/c/


Objectives

~ Review parts of the brain

~ Get a general understanding of the most important hormones and neurotransmitters


Serotonin

~ Serotonin is a neurotransmitter with seven families (5-HT1–5-HT7) and approximately 15 receptor subtypes.

~ Mood

~ Energy and glutamate release

~ Respiration

~ Blood pressure

~ Appetite

~ Pain perception

~ Bone density

~ Memory

~ Learning and cognition

~ Motivation and dopamine release

~ Acetylcholine, dopamine and norepinephrine release in the frontal cortex

~ GI motility


Serotonin

~ Serotonin is among the many neurotransmitters that participate in the regulation of cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone secretion

~ Low dopamine low prolactin

~ Prolactin regulates behavior, the immune system, metabolism, reproductive systems

~ Prolactin decreases estrogen and testosterone

~ Prolactin is high during times of stress


Norepinephrine

~ Produced from Phenylalanine–Tyrosine–L-dopa–Dopamine–Epinephrine–Norepinephrine

~ Regulates

~ Circadian rhythms

~ Attention and focus

~ Heart rate and blood pressure regulation

~ Regulates release of glucose and fatty acids into the blood

~ Mood (too much can cause panic)

~ Modulates immune response. Suppress neuroinflammation when released in the brain.

~ Up to 70% of norepinephrine projecting cells are lost in Alzheimer’s Disease


Acetylcholine

~ Muscle control

~ Arousal

~ Attention

~ Memory

~ Motivation


Glutamate

~ Main excitatory neurotransmitter but can excite cells to their death “excitotoxicity”

~ Testosterone was shown to significantly increase the toxicity of glutamate concentration, whereas estradiol significantly attenuated the toxicity


GABA

~ GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in adults

~ Created from glutamate

~ GABA is considered the major excitatory neurotransmitter in many regions of the brain before the brain matures

~ Assists in neurogeneration

~ Assists in reducing anxiety and fear

~ Produced at relatively high levels in the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas

~ Suppresses inflammation

~ Regulates muscle contraction


Endorphins

~ Fear and emotional learning are modulated by endogenous opioids

~ Endogenously released opioids directly regulate neuronal excitability

~ Modulate HPA-Axis responses Chronic stress causes changes in specific components of the endogenous opioid system, including μ-opioid receptors.

~ Immune cells have been shown to secrete endogenous opioid peptides, which then bind to peripheral opioid receptors to relieve inflammatory and neuropathic pain

~ Chronic overeating resulting in opioid release could cause opioid resistance and promote overeating and obesity to regulate homeostasis

~ Feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure


Dopamine

~ Motivation

~ Executive function

~ Mood

~ Movement (erectile dysfunction, restless legs, Parkinson’s disease)

~ Energy and Wakefulness (people with Parkinson’s or on antipsychotics are often sleepy)

~ Learning, attention & memory (prefrontal cortex)

~ Regulates insulin

~ Immune system

~ Reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa

~ Regulates the flow of information from other areas of the brain (problem solving) (Frontal lobe and thalamus)

~ L-Tyrosine produces dopamine, adrenaline, thyroid hormones


Endocannabinoids

~ Endocannabinoids maintain emotional, physiological and cognitive stability

• Appetite, digestion, metabolism

• Chronic pain inflammation and other immune system responses

• Mood and stress response

• Learning and memory

• Motor control

• Sleep

• Cardiovascular and reproductive system function

• Bone remodeling and growth

• Skin and nerve function

~ CB1 receptors are mostly found in the brain and GABA, glutamate, dopamine and serotonin.

~ CB2 receptors are mostly found within the immune system


Summary

~ Neurotransmitters and hormones exist in a very delicate balance.

~ Changing one often results in a cascade of other changes

~ Mood and cognitive symptoms may be caused by problems with a variety of different neurotransmitters or hormones

~ Aging naturally reduces certain hormones and consequently neurotransmitters

~ Differential diagnoses requires exploring the possibility of a deficit in a neurotransmitter or hormone due to

~ Insufficient raw materials to make it

~ Deficiency in other chemicals that trigger its release

~ Excess of chemicals that degrade it or trigger reuptake

~ Problems in neuronal signaling within the system.

~ The human body is extremely complex

~ Symptoms of mood and cognitive disorders can be caused by a variety of problems in physiological systems

~ Cognitions and emotions can trigger the HPA-Axis and alter the functioning of internal systems and set off a cascade.

~ Effective treatment of mood and cognitive disorders requires addressing all physiological as well as psychological issues contributing to neurochemical imbalance.

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Interactions of Hormones and Neurotransmitters

Interactions of Hormones and Neurotransmitters

Charles Snipes